Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Media: Voice and Video in your SIP Environment Jitendra Shekhawat.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Media: Voice and Video in your SIP Environment Jitendra Shekhawat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Media: Voice and Video in your SIP Environment Jitendra Shekhawat

2 Agenda Common Audio and Video Codecs Media/Codec Negotiations Tuning Your Network for Voice and Video QoS issues, metrics and user quality expectations Objective: Introduction of Media in the SIP environment.

3 SIP RTP SIP RTP IP Audio/Video Telephony Network IP RTP SIP SIP Soft Phone SIP Desk Phone PC – Email Client Applications Video Mail Video Portal Live content streaming Broadband Users Multimedia Server SIP Video Endpoints SIP Proxy Server SIP RTSP Streaming Server CNN, ESPN, Bloomberg, live feed RTP Call Control: SIP Media: RTP Video: H263, H264, MPEG4 Audio: G711, G723, G729, G726, AMR-NB, etc. RTSP

4 SIP Call Example

5 Audio Video Codecs and Payload Types RFC 3551 Some codecs

6 Media Transport RTP –Real Time Transport Protocol –media packet transport –One stream per direction between endpoints RTCP –RTP Control Protocol –Provides quality information –Generate reports to the network

7 RTP Packet RTP Datagram IP Header 20 bytes UDP Header 8 bytes RTP Header 12 bytes RTP Payload N bytes Version 2 bits Padding 1 bit Extensio n 1 bit CSRC count 4 bits Marker 1 bit Payload Type 7 bits Sequence Number 2 bytes Time stamp 4 bytes Source Identifier 4 bytes

8 RTCP Packet Receiver of RTP stream sends periodic updates to the originator Packet count Byte count Packet loss Timestamps to assess round-trip delay Jitter

9 RTP Packet Payload size Example: g.711, 20 ms frames: 64000 bps X 20 msec / 8 = 160 byte payload Payload size = Function of: codec speed, frame-size Frequency packets sent codec speed X frame size bits/byte 8 X 1000 msec / sec

10 Media Stream (RTP) Bandwidth: Packet size := Header + Payload Header := Ethernet + (IP + UDP + RTP) = 38 + (20 + 8 + 12) = 38 + 40 bytes Payload := depends on codec Example: g.711, 20 ms frames (50 packets/s) 160 byte payload + (38 + 40) byte header IP bandwidth: 200 byte/packet = 80,000 bps  160 kbps for 2 way Ethernet bandwidth: 238 byte/packet = 95,2000 bps  190.4 kbps for 2 way Ethernet: Preamble (8) + Ethernet Header (14) + Ethernet CRC (4) + Inter-frame gap (12) = 38

11 Codec Bandwidths CoderBitrateEncoded bandwidth G.71164 kbps200-3400 Hz G.7235.4 or 6.3 kbps200-3400 Hz G.729A (20ms Packet)8 kbps200-3400 Hz AMR4.75 to 12.2 kbps200-3400 Hz AMR-WBVariable: 6.6 up to 23.85 (non- continuous) 50 to 7000 Hz AMR-WB+Variable: 6-36 kbps (mono) or 7- 48 kbps (stereo) 50 Hz – 7.2 kHz up to 50 Hz – 19.2 kHz iLBC13.33 kbps for 30 ms, 15.20 kbps for 20ms 200-3400 Hz

12 Codec Bandwidths CoderIP Bandwidth / RTP stream G.711 (30 ms Packet)74.6 kbps G.711 (20ms Packet)80 kbps G.711 (10 ms Packet)96 kbps G.723.1 (30ms Packet)15.7 kbps G.729A (20ms Packet)24 kbps AMR (20 ms)20.4 - 28 kbps AMR-WB (20ms)22.4 – 39.6 kbps AMR-WB+ (20ms)22 – 52 kbps iLBC (20ms or 30ms)31.2 kbps or 24 kbps

13 Video streams Frame Sequence I-frames (Key frames)P-frames (predicted frames)

14 Video Formats (IP vs. 3G) High resolution for IP networks –More bandwidth available –SIP Video Phones are generally CIF size (352 × 288 pixels) –Recommended: CIF, 15 or 30fps, up to 384kbps Low resolution for 3G networks –Total bandwidth limited to 64kbps –Generally video + audio is approx 52kbps (12.2kbps AMR + 40kbps H263) –3G Mobile phones are generally QCIF size (176 × 144 pixels) CIF QCIF 4 3

15 Performance Issues Propagation Delay Time required to travel end to end across the network Transport Delay Time required to traverse network equipment Packetization Delay Time to digitize, build frames and undo at destination Jitter Delay Fixed delay by receiver to hold 1 or more packets to damp variations in arrival times Packet Loss Packet size impacts sound quality

16 Jitter Delay Calculated on inter-arrival time of successive packets –Average inter-arrival time –Standard deviation Goal inter-arrival time = inter-arrival time on emitted packets 3 phenomena effecting jitter –Packet loss (threshold 5%) –Silence suppression –Out of sequence packets Can be configured on most VoIP equipment

17 Packet Fragmentation Audio RTP packets –Not generally fragmented since packet size is less than MTU Video RTP packets –A large frame is fragmented into a series of packets for transmission over network –I-Frame fragmentation Receiver must receive all fragments to properly reconstruct frame

18 Packet Loss Audio –Packet Loss Concealment (PLC) Mask effect of lost or discarded packets Replay previous packet or use previous packets to estimate missing data Key method for improving voice quality –Packet Loss Recovery (PLR) –Packet Redundancy Increased bandwidth Video –I-Frame If a fragment is lost, subsequent P-Frames will not be sufficient to reconstruct image at receiver Video conversion tools available to generate files more suitable for real-time transmission

19 G.107 to MOS mapping

20 Codec Bandwidth and Voice Quality Comparison CodecPayload Bit RateVoice Quality G.71164 KbpsExcellent (MOS 4.2) G.7236.4 Kbps / 5.3 KbpsGood (MOS 3.9) Fair (MOS 3.7) G.7298 KbpsGood (MOS 4.0) G.726 or G.721 16/24/32/40 Kbps 2/3.2/4/4.2 iLBC13.33/15.2 kbpsGood (MOS 4.0) AMR-WB+6-36 kbpsGood (MOS near 4.0)

21 Network Issues?

22 Network Issues – Now What Determine the source of delay –Codec’s? –Too many hops? –Not enough bandwidth? Define means to reduce delay –Provision smaller packet sizes –Reduce hop count –Change routing protocols used Keep monitoring –Find problems first –Objectively identify issues

23 IP Header

24 Traffic Shaping DiffServ RSVP MPLS

25 Conclusion Reliability –Can calls be made when needed? –Will call setup time match current environment? –Will calls be disconnected? Quality –Is the voice quality of the calls the same? –Can the users tell the difference? Cost –What are the cost benefits of VoIP? –What equipment will be needed?

26 Wrap-up Q & A / Quiz

27 Frame Sizes FormatDimension (H x W, pixels) >1 bits/pixel Sub-QCIF (SQCIF)128 x 96 Quarter-CIF (QCIF)176 x 144 CIF (Common Intermediate Format) 352 x 288 4CIF (4 x CIF)704 x 576 16CIF (16 x CIF)1408 x 1152

Download ppt "Media: Voice and Video in your SIP Environment Jitendra Shekhawat."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google