2 About Writing… Why do you write? 2 quotes about writing (p.2) Why did these professional writers write? Do you share their feelings in any way?Write to share thoughts, opinions, ideas,or to express what is abstract in your mind and put it physically on papers,or to reorganize messy thoughts in the mind and put them logically on paper.Focus: showing / organizing abstract thoughts.Writing is to tighten up ideas firmly and logically.
3 Writing: To tighten all ideas firmly & logically Larger unitsTopic sentenceUnityCoherenceCohesionConstruction of WritingsEssaysParagraphsSentencesWordsSmallest units
4 Start from Writing a Paragraph A paragraph is a group of sentences about a topic.Topic sentence: to introduce the topic.Supporting sentences: to support the idea in the topic sentence with explanations, reasons, and other details.Concluding sentence: to bring the paragraph to an end.(p.3)Exercise: p.4
5 I. TOPIC SENTENCEIt introduce the topic. It also contains an idea/opinion about the topic (controlling idea).Exercise 4. (p.5)The topic sentence must contain a specific idea. It can’t be too general or too narrow.The topic sentence implies the purpose of the paragraph.Exercise 5. (p.6)The topic sentence usually appears as the first or second sentence of a paragraph.An effective paragraph must contains a good topic sentence.
6 This paper is about America. This paper is about American history. Which of the following sentences is the best for a topic sentence? Why?This paper is about America.This paper is about American history.My favorite period of American history is the Revolutionary War.The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776.Exercise 8 (p.7)1. This paper is about America.Sentence 1 is too broad to be a good topic sentence for a paragraph. A paragraph should focus on one idea. If you are writing about America, there are thousands of aspects of America that you could write about. For example, you could write about American culture, America’s economy, its history. Therefore, sentence 1 is much too broad to act as the topic sentence of a paragraph.例句1中的主題涵蓋範圍太廣了，所以不適合作為一個段落的主題句。一個段落應只有一個焦點。如果你要寫關於「美國」的文章，則有幾千個面向可以拿來討論，像是美國的文化、經濟、歷史等等。所以說，例句1的寫法涵蓋太廣，作為一個主題句並不合適。2. This paper is about American history.So is sentence 2 a better topic sentence since we have cut the topic from America down to American history? No, it is still too broad because once again there are thousands of more specific areas of American history that the paragraph could deal with. In addition, it does not point out a specific opinion about American history. The opinion about American history would be the controlling idea of the paragraph. Thus, this sentence is still too broad, and it lacks a controlling idea.例句2雖然比上個句子來得恰當，因為已從「美國」縮小為「美國歷史」，但是仍然太廣，因為有太多有關美國歷史的面向可以寫。而且句子 中也並沒有提到作者的意見。我們需要作者的「控制想法」以作為主題範圍的設定。因此主題需要再縮小，也應當加入作者的想法。3. My favorite period of American history is the Revolutionary War.Sentence 3 makes a much better topic sentence because we have cut down the topic into something much smaller. It has gone from America to the Revolutionary War period of American history. This sentence also has an opinion about the topic. For the controlling idea of the paragraph, we see that the writer is going to tell reasons why he likes this period of American history.例句3比其他句子要好，因為範圍又縮小了，從「美國」縮小為「美國獨立革命」，而且也有作者的意見。從作者的「控制想法」看來，我們可預期看到的是作者喜愛美國獨立革命時期的理由 。4. The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776.Sentences can be too narrow to act as an appropriate topic sentence. Sentences 4 states very specific facts with no opinions about the facts. Once the facts are stated, there is no more room to expand on the ideas in the sentence. A good topic sentence will prepare the reader to learn more about the main point that you are going to make in your paragraph.過於精準的主題句也並不適當。例句4有非常精確的描述，而缺乏作者的意見。以這麼具體的句子作為主題句，就失去可擴充的空間。一個好的主題句應該能夠帶讀者進入文章、了解作者主旨。
7 II. UNITYA paragraph has unity when all the sentences support one single idea.The topic sentence must have one controlling idea. Otherwise, the paragraph loses focus.The supporting sentences must support, demonstrate, prove, or develop the main idea in the topic sentence. No irrelevant sentences are needed.The concluding sentences should restate the idea in the topic sentence.Exercise 3 (p.10)Effective writing must have unity.
8 One sentence is irrelevant. Find it. Why is it irrelevant? Stories of Nepal (p.9)The topic sentence?The controlling idea?One sentence is irrelevant. Find it. Why is it irrelevant?Exercise 4 (p.11)
9 III. COHERENCEA paragraph is coherent if the ideas have a logical flow.The relationship between sentences is clear and one idea connects to the other.Important Rules for Acting On Stage (p.13)How many rules does the writer give?How does the writer arrange the points?連貫性
10 Here are some words that can be used to show the order of the items in your paragraph: Exercise 8. (p.14)first,second,third,in the morning,in the afternoon,in the evening,at night,next,later,afterand thenafter that,finally,in the end,
11 IV. COHESIONWhen the relationship btw different sentences or different parts of sentences are clearly linked to one another, a passage has cohesion.Coherence 連貫性Cohesion 緊密性Relationship between ideas.Relationships between sentences, or parts of sentences.To use a pattern of organization.ConjunctionsReferencesStructural sentences.緊密性
12 Ways of reaching cohesion: Using connectives and connective phrases.Using reference to a previously stated word or phrase by repetition, pronouns, or synonyms.Arranging sentences into structural patterns.
13 A. Using connectives and connective phrases The second sentence gives an illustration or exampleThe second sentence adds another pointThe second sentence restates, summarizes, or shows a resultThe second sentence expresses a contrastFor example,For instance,For one thing,To illustrate,and, also, too, then, first, second, next, Furthermore, Moreover, In addition,so, thus,In fact,Therefore,As a result,Accordingly,In other words,but, still, yet, However, Even so, Nevertheless, By contrast,On the other hand,
14 1. Connective wordsMany Americans think that Niagara Falls is the highest waterfall in the world. Angel Falls in Venezuela, at 3,212 feet, is roughly twenty times higher.Many Americans think that Niagara Falls is the highest waterfall in the world Angel Falls in Venezuela, at 3,212 feet, is roughly twenty times higher.But
15 2. Connective phrases & clauses Some arid regions of the world receive an average of only two- or three-hundredths of an inch of rain annually and may go for years without getting a drop. It usually comes in torrential downpours.Some arid regions of the world receive an average of only two- or three-hundredths of an inch of rain annually and may go for years without getting a drop. But when the rain does come, it usually comes in torrential downpours.
16 B. Using reference to a previously stated word or phrase Repeat wordsUse pronounsCreate synonyms
17 1. RepetitionTopic sentenceAgatha Christie earned world renown as the author of numerous mystery tales. But non of the fictional takes is more mysterious than the true story of her own disappearance in Waves of shock rumbled throughout the British public when the newspapers proclaimed that Christie had vanished. Not until several months later was she discovered, supposedly afflicted with amnesia, working as a nanny in Yorkshire manor house. To this day, her fans are intrigued because she was gone for so long without being discovered.Topic sentence: But non of the fictional takes is more mysterious than the true story of her own disappearance in 1926.Controlling idea: mysterious disappearanceConcluding sentence: To this day, her fans are intrigued because she was gone for so long without being discovered To repeat the key words can link the last to the first, establish coherence and reinforcing the topic as well.Concluding sentence
18 Agatha Christie earned world renown as the author of numerous mystery tales. But non of the fictional takes is more mysterious than the true story of her own disappearance in Waves of shock rumbled throughout the British public when the newspapers proclaimed that Christie had vanished. Not until several months later was she discovered, supposedly afflicted with amnesia, working as a nanny in Yorkshire manor house. To this day, her fans are intrigued by the mystery of her disappearance.
19 2. PronounsVirgos are simple and gentle people, with a need to serve humanity. Careful and precise by nature, Virgos make excellent secretaries ad nurses. Virgos warm, shining eyes and their bright appearances conceal their burning desire for love.A pronoun is a word that gets its meaning by referring to an earlier word or phrase.Indicate all pronouns used.What do they refer to?
20 Virgos are simple and gentle people, with a need to serve humanity Virgos are simple and gentle people, with a need to serve humanity. Careful and precise by nature, they make excellent secretaries ad nurses. Their warm, shining eyes and their bright appearances conceal their burning desire for love.
21 3. SynonymsLandlords usually require a renter to sign a very complicated contract called a lease. It stipulates the length of time the person must stay in the apartment and the amount of rent he/she must pay. It can limit the number of people allowed to live in and restrict the renter from having pets. The agreement also includes the responsibilities of the landlord, such as providing adequate heat, garbage removal, and exterior maintenance.To repeat word indirectly wth a word or phrase that has the same or similar meaning(or you refer to it with a pronoun, which is a kind of synonym itself.)What are synonyms in this paragraph?
22 C. Arranging sentences into structural patterns Place parallel ideas into parallel structures.Organize old and new information into proper sequences.
23 1. Parallel structuresThe 1960s brought to American pop music a fusion of radically different geographic and cultural influences. The influence of religion and mysticism which came from the East made popular such instruments as the table and the sitar. A Caribbean influence was southern in origin, branching into such forms as reggae and calypso, with their steel drums and marimbas.How to make the paragraph more coherent to read?Based on what concept? “Geology” the separate influences all came from somewhere
24 The 1960s brought to American pop music a fusion of radically different geographic and cultural influences. From the East came the influence of religion and mysticism, which made popular such instruments as the table and the sitar. From the South came the Caribbean influence, branching into such forms as reggae and calypso, with their steel drums and marimbas.Parallel