Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

May/25/2006 ( 尹守紀整理 ) 0 About 〝 Requirements 〞 2005 年 11 月 國防工業發展協會 科技顧問 尹守紀

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "May/25/2006 ( 尹守紀整理 ) 0 About 〝 Requirements 〞 2005 年 11 月 國防工業發展協會 科技顧問 尹守紀"— Presentation transcript:

1 May/25/2006 ( 尹守紀整理 ) 0 About 〝 Requirements 〞 2005 年 11 月 國防工業發展協會 科技顧問 尹守紀

2 1 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 About 〝 REQUIREMENT 〞 based on - DoD-STD-2167A - MIL-STD IEEE INCOSE TUTORIAL - CMMI TUTORIAL

3 2 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 摘要 1. 系統上線之後將隨着硬體衰退以及軟體市場需求的遞變,經常會 在 Operation 與 Maintenance 階段發生使用者 (1) 產生操作不方 便 (non-friendly) 、 (2) 感覺準確度不足 (insufficient accuracy) 、 (3) 運算無法及時處理 (non-real time) 、 (4) 使用技能不足 (skill level gap) 、或維護者發現 (5) 零件消失造成修護不易 (parts obsoleting) 、 (6) 維修檢測不易 (stupid test equipment) 、 (7) 可 靠度不佳 (insufficient reliability) 、 (8) 人力不足 (insufficient human resource) 、 … 等問題。管理單位一般處理方式可包括 (a) 加強訓練以改善操作熟練度、 (b) 更改操作程序、 (c) 調整系統任 務配賦角色、 (d) 採購並更換系統。當發生 (d) 之情形,即進入買 方的 Acquisition Process ,這也是一般對於系統發展或軟體發 展最有興趣之部分。 2. 但在進入 Acquisition Process 之前,事實上尚包括多項有關需 求 (requirements) 的釐清與分析程序,通常使用單位 / 操作單位 需要以 Mission Need Statement (SON) 、 Operational Requirement (ORD) 、.. 等文件表述現有問題以及需要什麼性能 與功能的需求(包含操作環境以及外部介面),也是所謂的 requirements engineering 中所謂的 requirements elicitation 程序; user 表述之後, acquirer 對於此等敘述或需求應進行

4 3 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 摘要 ( 續 ) 分析,此包括成本、效益、可行方式、籌獲方式、技術分析、 … 等,即所謂的 requirements analysis 。可行 requirements 確定 之後即進行 functional analysis ,應將此等 requirements 配賦 (allocated) 到不同的 function 執行,如何再將 function 配賦 (allocated) 到不同的 component 或 subsystem ,即是承約商必 需於 PDR 階段完成之事項。在 RFP package 中的 specification , 最基本的表達方式就是將 functional requirement 轉換為 functional specification 文件,即所謂的 documentation 程序, 較佳的是寫成 performance specification ,但要避免採用撰寫 “how to manufacture” 的 design specification 格式。 3.Acquisition Process 可以 Contract Award 點區分為 Pre- acquisition 與 Post-acquisition 。要執行 Contract ,就要有 RFP 之程序, RFP Package 包含有三份基本文件 (1)Specification 、 (2)Statement of Works (SOW) 或 Statement of Objects (SOO) 、 (3)Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) 、以及以下幾項補充資訊 (4)Contract Schedule 、 (5) 保密切結書(視需要)、 (6)Program WBS ( Down to Level-3 ),前三份資料(僅敘述 “what” ,其中 specification 用以表示涵蓋硬體與軟體的

5 4 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 摘要 ( 續 ) “goods” , SOW 用以表示 “service” ,將要買的實體物件與服務分 開敘述),將組合出合約應完成的 Products 與 Procedures ;賣 方競標 (bids) 的 Cost Proposal 或 CWBS 即依據此三份文件逐項 報價。其中的 Specification 即是籌獲者( acquirer )依據 SON 與 ORD 轉換為 Technical Requirements ,此部份可稱之為 requirements generating system 。 4.RFP 內容即涵蓋全部 requirements ,在前述 “1”-(1) 至 (8) 舉例的 情形即所謂的 User Needs ,通常可以由 SON 與 ORD 文件敘述, 所敘述的內容可包括 Functions to be performed (what) 、 Performance required (how well) 、 Essential physical characteristics (environmental/interfaces) ; Acquirer 或 PM 在收到有關 Requirements 的 Statements of Needs 即可進行 Requirements Analysis 動作,可大致包括 What does the yet to be identified item have to do? 、 How well does it have to do it? 、 Where will it be used? 、 Under what conditions will it be used? 、 How often? How long? 、 Who will use it? 、 When is it needed? 、 How many are needed? ,即所謂的 requirements validation ;此等問題澄清 之後即可以撰寫 Specification 。以 Performance Specification 而言,其用意應將 “Operational Requirements” 轉換為承約商

6 5 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 摘要 ( 續 ) 可以執行的 “Technical language” 且以定量方式敘述而非定性方 式敘述,文件中應包括未來所交付產品相關性能的條件 ( results )、可承受之環境條件( operational environment condition )、以及買方決定允收( verify compliance )之方法。 5. 簽約之後可舉行 System Requirement Review (SRR) , SRR 係 用以確認承約商確實了解買方之 Specification 、 SOW 、 SOO 、 Contract Schedule 、 … 等需求,以避免日後賣方交出不是買 方所需要的系統。 6.RFP package 能否涵蓋 SON 與 ORD 事項, acquirer 即應採用 traceability 方式表達、若有需求變更即應依循 configuration management 程序提出 change request ,即所謂的 requirements management 。 7. 需求訂定不完整、不正確、或不可行,將會有 5-50 倍的 cost-to- fix 之 penalty 。

7 6 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Topics 1.About 〝 Requirement 〞 2.Guideline to define 〝 Requirement 〞 3.Checklist of 〝 Requirement 〞 4.Real Practice Case    

8 7 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/ What is Quality? Watts Humphrey: To improve “Product Quality”, you must improve “Process Quality”. Crosby: Quality as “Conformance to Requirement”. –First, a software product must provide functions of a type and a time when the user needs them. –Second, the product must work.

9 8 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/ Common Problems in Software Development Poor requirements- unclear, incomplete, too general, or not testable. Unrealistic schedule - if too much work is crammed in too little time. Inadequate testing - no one will know whether or not the program is any good until the customer complains or systems crash. Featurities -requests to pile on new features after development is underway. Miscommunication

10 9 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/ Interrelationship between Requirement and WBS Requirements 要能與 WBS 及 SOW 相匹配

11 10 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Software Bugs Percentage of Bugs by Source Percentage of Cost of Fixing Bugs by Source Requirements Design Code Other 1.3- Why Are Requirements Important? Poor Requirements 或不 將 Requirements 當一回 事將引致〝焦油坑〞

12 11 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Requirement 階段的 Defect 最高需 50 倍的 支出予以矯正,若能 在 design phase 矯正, 可降為 5 倍

13 12 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/ Who is in charge of Requirement? Translating Customer Requirements to HW, SW, Specialty, and Test requirements SE SW Tester HW Rel, Mfg, HFE... Marketing / Proj Mgmt Customer

14 13 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/ What is Requirement? (1) 1.Based on CMMI as a)(1) A condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective. (2) A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a product or product component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed documents. (3) A documented representation of a condition or capability as in (1) or (2). [IEEE ] 〞 b)…, these requirements address the needs of relevant stakeholders, including those pertinent to various product life-cycle phases (e.g., acceptance testing criteria) and product attributes (e.g., safety, reliability, maintainability). Requirements also address constraints caused by the selection of design solutions (e.g., integration of commercial off-the-shelf products).

15 14 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/ What is Requirement? (2) 2.Based on DICTIONARY ( article on Wikipedia.org ) as article on Wikipedia.org a)In software engineering, a requirement is a description of what a system should do. Very few systems have a single requirement, and most have hundreds. A collection of requirements then define the characteristics of the desired (required) system, but do not say how the system should implement those requirements.software engineering b)In a classical software engineering approach, requirements are used as input into the design stages (functional design followed by technical design) of the development process. c)The requirements phase may have been preceded by a feasibility study, or a conceptual phase of the project. d)All requirements should be testable. If this is not the case, then offending requirements should be altered or dropped.

16 15 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Level of Detail Project Time Low High Acceptance Testing Problem with V-Model: Client’s Perception is the same as the Developer’s Perception Client’s Understanding Developer’s Understanding Requirements Elicitation Analysis Design System Testing Object Design Unit Testing Integration Testing 1.7- “Requirement” in V model “ Acceptance testing” against “Requirements”

17 16 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Process Implementation Activity Supporting Processes: Documentation, CM, QA, Verification, Validation, Joint Review, Audit, Problem resolution Organizational Processes: Management, Infrastructure, Improvement, Training System Qual Test System Integra-tion Software Installation Software Acceptance Support Software Item 1: Sys Arch Design System Reqts Analysis Software Qual Test Software Integra- tion Software Code & Test Software Detailed Design Software Arch. Design Software Reqts. Analysis SRS SARAD SRD, UDD SAD, SIDD, DBDD, T/VP SRD, UDD EOCR, SCR,T/VPr, T/VRR SIP,T/VPr T/VPr T/VRR SCR T/VRR SCR SCR, T/VRR DPP, SDSD SCMP, SCMR, SCIR, SQAP, SQAR, SVRR, PR/PRR Software Item 2: Software Qual Test Software Integra- tion Software Code & Test Software Detailed Design Software Arch. Design Software Reqts. Analysis Hardware items 1.7- “Requirement” in waterfall model (applying 12207)

18 17 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Program Strategy Define All Requirements First? Multiple Development Cycles Distribute Interim Software? Once-Through (Waterfall) YesNo Incremental (Preplanned Product Improvement) Yes Maybe Evolutionary NoYes 1.8- The relationship between “Requirement” and life cycle model 1.“Requirements Freeze” 動作, 將隨 Life Cycle Model 而異 2.Life Cycle Model 不可亂定

19 18 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/ The interrelationship between “Requirement” and other’s Process Discrete 屬性的 Primary Process Continuous 屬性的 Supporting Process

20 19 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 RD PI Val Customer TS Ver REQM Requirements Customer needs Product & product component requirements Product components, work products, verification and validation reports Product components Alternative solutions Require- ments Product Your 〝 Requirement 〞 from CMMI’s view 由 RD PA 產生 Requirements REQM PA 僅負 責維護 Requirements

21 20 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 System/Subsystem Design Description (SSDD) System Specification (SS) (MIL-STD-961D) Requirements Requirement: “Noun shall verb.” Example: The car shall stop within 100 feet at 50 mph. Functional Performance Function: “Verb Noun.” Example: Stop Car or “Verb-ing.” Example: Stopping. Component: “Noun.” Example: Brake. Functions Components System/Subsystem Specification (SSS) System Requirements Document (SRD) System Requirements Specification (SRS) (SSDD/SS) What is Systems Engineering? (cont) JOC Key Terms and Relationships “REQUIREMNTS” 包括有 Functionality 、 Performance 、 Attributes

22 21 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Requirements Engineering Process Inputs Customer / User Needs ­Performance Requirements ­System External Interfaces ­Environmental Requirements External Influences ­Federal Regulations ­Navy Orders ­Standards ­Available Funding Top Level System Requirements Requirements Traceability Matrix System Concept of Operations Functional Architecture System Functional Block Diagram System External Interfaces Life Cycle Cost Objectives Verification Methodology Programmatic Risks Technical Performance Measures Logistics Program Systems Engineering Master Schedule Preliminary Models / Simulations Perform Systems Requirements Analysis and Functional Allocation Outputs Politics & Market Place Rules, Orders, Regulations, Standards Program Requirements OPERATIONAL NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS 1. DEFINE ENVIRONMENT 2. DEFINE SYSTEM BOUNDRIES 3. IDENTIFY ATTRIBUTES TO SUPPORT OBJECTIVES 4. ESTABLISH FUNCTIONAL BASELINE 5. CONDUCT SYSTEM RQMTS. REVIEW DESIGN REFERENCE MISSION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION INTERFACES SYSTEM ANALYSIS TOP LEVEL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FUNCTIONAL BASELINE GEO-ECOMONIC ALTERNATIVES AFFORDABILITY BOUNDRIES ID KEY COST ATTRIBUTES AND RELATIONSHIPS CONDUCT LCC AND CAIV TRADE-OFFS Requirements Engineering Process Define customer needs Identify requirements Decompose requirements to appropriate working level Identify top-level functions Decompose functions to appropriate working level Integrate functional interfaces Define performance measures of effectiveness Identify Systematic Risks Define customer needs Identify requirements Decompose requirements to appropriate working level Identify top-level functions Decompose functions to appropriate working level Integrate functional interfaces Define performance measures of effectiveness Identify Systematic Risks Allocation 將決定出 CSCI 與 HWCI 的 requirements 內容

23 22 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Topics 1.About 〝 Requirement 〞 2.Guideline to define 〝 Requirement 〞 3.Checklist of 〝 Requirement 〞 4.Real Practice Case    

24 23 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 An Example - Requirements Development SP Establish Product and Product Component Requirements –Establish and maintain, from the customer requirements, product and product component requirements essential to product and product component effectiveness and affordability ISO/IEC 15288, System Life Cycle Processes –Clause Requirements Analysis Process IEEE/EIA , Software Life Cycle Processes –Clause System Requirements Analysis –Clause Software requirements analysis IEEE 1233, Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications IEEE 830, Software Requirements Specifications

25 24 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 An Example - Requirements Development SP Establish Product and Product Component Requirements –Establish and maintain, from the customer requirements, product and product component requirements essential to product and product component effectiveness and affordability ISO/IEC 15288, System Life Cycle Processes –Clause Requirements Analysis Process IEEE/EIA , Software Life Cycle Processes –Clause System Requirements Analysis –Clause Software requirements analysis IEEE 1233, Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications IEEE 830, Software Requirements Specifications Requirements Analysis Process Purpose of the Requirements Analysis Process The purpose of the Requirements Analysis Process is to transform the stakeholder, requirement-driven view of desired services into a technical view of a required product that could deliver those services. This process builds a representation of a future system that will meet stakeholder requirements and that, as far as constraints permit, does not imply any specific implementation. It results in measurable system requirements that specify, from the developer’s perspective, what characteristics it is to possess and with what magnitude in order to satisfy stakeholder requirements Requirements Analysis Process Outcomes As a result of the successful implementation of the Requirements Analysis Process: a) The required characteristics, attributes, and functional and performance requirements for a product solution are specified. b) Constraints that will affect the architectural design of a system and the means to realize it are specified. c) The integrity and traceability of system requirements to stakeholder requirements is achieved.... Source: ISO/IEC CD FDIS, © ISO/IEC2002.

26 25 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 An Example - Requirements Development SP Establish Product and Product Component Requirements –Establish and maintain, from the customer requirements, product and product component requirements essential to product and product component effectiveness and affordability ISO/IEC 15288, System Life Cycle Processes –Clause Requirements Analysis Process IEEE/EIA , Software Life Cycle Processes –Clause System Requirements Analysis –Clause Software requirements analysis IEEE 1233, Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications IEEE 830, Software Requirements Specifications The specific intended use of the system to be developed shall be analyzed to specify system requirements. The system requirements specification shall describe: functions and capabilities of the system; business, organizational and user requirements; safety, security, human-factors engineering (ergonomics), interface, operations, and maintenance requirements; design constraints and qualification requirements. The system requirements specification shall be documented The developer shall establish and document software requirements, including the quality characteristics specifications, described below.... a) Functional and capability specifications, including performance, physical characteristics, and environmental conditions under which the software item is to perform; b) Interfaces external to the software item; c) Qualification requirements; d) Safety specifications, including those related to methods of operation and maintenance, environmental influences, and personnel injury; e) Security specifications, including those related to compromise of sensitive information... Source: IEEE/EIA , © IEEE 2001.

27 26 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 An Example - Requirements Development SP Establish Product and Product Component Requirements –Establish and maintain, from the customer requirements, product and product component requirements essential to product and product component effectiveness and affordability ISO/IEC 15288, System Life Cycle Processes –Clause Requirements Analysis Process IEEE/EIA , Software Life Cycle Processes –Clause System Requirements Analysis –Clause Software requirements analysis IEEE 1233, Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications IEEE 830, Software Requirements Specifications 7.2 Build a well-formed requirement The analysts carry out this subphase by doing the following: a) Ensuring that each requirement is a necessary, short, definitive statement of need (capability, constraints); b) Defining the appropriate conditions (quantitative or qualitative measures) for each requirement and avoiding adjectives such as “resistant” or “industry wide;” c) Avoiding requirements pitfalls (see 6.4); d) Ensuring the readability of requirements, which entails the following: 1) Simple words/phrases/concepts; 2) Uniform arrangement and relationship; 3) Definition of unique words, symbols, and notations; 4) The use of grammatically correct language and symbology. e) Ensuring testability. Example: Capability: Move people between Los Angeles and New York Condition: Cruising speed of 200 km/hr Constraint: Maximum speed of 300 km/hr Well-formed requirement: This system should move people between Los Angeles and New York at an optimal cruising speed of 200 km/hr with a maximum speed of 300 km/hr. Source: IEEE , © IEEE 1998.

28 27 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 An Example - Requirements Development SP Establish Product and Product Component Requirements –Establish and maintain, from the customer requirements, product and product component requirements essential to product and product component effectiveness and affordability ISO/IEC 15288, System Life Cycle Processes –Clause Requirements Analysis Process IEEE/EIA , Software Life Cycle Processes –Clause System Requirements Analysis –Clause Software requirements analysis IEEE 1233, Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications IEEE 830, Software Requirements Specifications Source: IEEE , © IEEE 1998.

29 28 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 An Example - Requirements Development SP Establish Product and Product Component Requirements –Establish and maintain, from the customer requirements, product and product component requirements essential to product and product component effectiveness and affordability ISO/IEC 15288, System Life Cycle Processes –Clause Requirements Analysis Process IEEE/EIA , Software Life Cycle Processes –Clause System Requirements Analysis –Clause Software requirements analysis IEEE 1233, Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications IEEE 830, Software Requirements Specifications Functions Functional requirements should define the fundamental actions that must take place in the software in accepting and processing the inputs and in processing and generating the outputs. These are generally listed as “shall” statements starting with “The system shall” These include: a) Validity checks on the inputs b) Exact sequence of operations c) Responses to abnormal situations, including: 1) Overflow 2) Communication facilities 3) Error handling and recovery d) Effect of parameters e) Relationship of outputs to inputs... 1) It may be appropriate to partition the functional requirements into subfunctions or subprocesses. This does not imply that the software design will also be partitioned that way Performance requirements This subsection should specify both the static and the dynamic numerical requirements placed on the soft- ware or on human interaction with the software as a whole. Static numerical requirements may include the following: a) The number of terminals to be supported; b) The number of simultaneous users to be supported; c) Amount and type of information to be handled. Source: IEEE , © IEEE 1998.

30 29 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 An Example - Requirements Development SP Establish Product and Product Component Requirements –Establish and maintain, from the customer requirements, product and product component requirements essential to product and product component effectiveness and affordability ISO/IEC 15288, System Life Cycle Processes –Clause Requirements Analysis Process IEEE/EIA , Software Life Cycle Processes –Clause System Requirements Analysis –Clause Software requirements analysis IEEE 1233, Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications IEEE 830, Software Requirements Specifications Source: IEEE , © IEEE 1998.

31 30 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Topics 1.About 〝 Requirement 〞 2.Guideline to define 〝 Requirement 〞 3.Checklist of 〝 Requirement 〞 4.Real Practice Case    

32 31 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 System Requirement Checklist Sect No Section TitleActivities 1 Introduction Overview of the SR document and description of what is to be produced and delivered for the Project, – all applicable and reference documents, Definitions, acronyms and abbreviations 2 Background Information about the general factors that affect the product(s) and their requirements, – physical, hardware, operating environments Relation to other systems, state whether the system is independent, subsystem of a larger one or a replacement 3 Specific requirements Information about project requirements: –Detailed requirements structured top-down, Feasibility study, Benchmarking study, Requirements Analysis, Project Planning, Evaluation of available products, Technological trials, Development of demonstrator (system mock-up) 4 Hardware requirements If the contract delivers hardware, specify requirements for each item of equipment; specify: type, number, functionality, standards, interfaces, performance, capacity, expansibility, reliability, availability, durability, maintainability, running cost limitations, operational requirements etc

33 32 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 System Requirement Checklist 5 Tele-communication services Specify requirements if telecommunication facilities are to be delivered by the project. Omit this section if the project makes use of existing telecommunication facilities 6 System capability Functional (6.1) – purpose of system Interfaces (6.2) –Software: e.g., software environments, file formats, database management systems and other software applications · –Hardware: hardware configurations · –Communications: use of a particular network protocol · –External interface requirements should be described or referenced in Interface documents. User interface requirements should be specified under ‘ Operational requirements ’ (see below). Interface requirements can be illustrated with system block diagrams · Operational (6.3) · Security (6.4) · Safety (6.5) Quality (6.6)

34 33 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 System Requirement Checklist 7 System management Installation support (7.1) Diagnostic tools (7.2) Configuration, release control and faults (7.3) Instrumentation (7.4) Tuning (7.5) Back-up and recovery (7.6) Operational control (7.7) 8 Operational characteristics Capacity (8.1) –eg processing power, memory, disc space etc; include expansibility· Performance (8.2) – must be quantitative, not qualitative, statements; possibly include worst/best cases and nominal value to be used for planning· Availability (8.3) – details of days/times, tolerable breaks, system failure notification, usage during failure and availability monitoring · Reliability (8.4) – acceptable mean time between failure (MTBF), minimum acceptable MTBF; reliability verification

35 34 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 System Requirement Checklist 9 System architecture Maintainability (9.1) – fault repair and adaptability in quantitative terms; influence of user availability/adaptability · Portability (9.2) – software ability to work on other (named) systems · Prescribed components (9.3) – applications, tools and techniques available from other projects and OSNs; consider Horizontal Actions and Measures · Software constitution and structure (9.4) – name actual products 10 Documentation Documents may include user training, user reference, system management, operational support, release notes, configuration control files, system maintenance, supplier reference, warranties 11 Other services ·Training (11.1), Installation processes (11.2), Data set- up (11.3), Parallel running (11.4), Operational support (11.5), Warranty (11.6) Maintenance (11.7)

36 35 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 System Requirement Checklist 12 Developmental requirements Roles and responsibilities (12.1) Phases (12.2) Verification (12.3) A Requirements traceability matrix B Services provided by the Commission Specify any tools, services or facilities to be provided by or on behalf of the European Commission. Examples are equipment, software licences, telecommunication facilities, software from earlier systems, office facilities and services, staff time.(These are not requirements and are therefore shown in an appendix)

37 36 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Topics 1.About 〝 Requirement 〞 2.Guideline to define 〝 Requirement 〞 3.Checklist of 〝 Requirement 〞 4.Real Practice Case    

38 37 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 One real case –for “feasibility” 1. 通則 1.1 本章概要 1.2 工作範圍 1.3 相關章節 1.4 相關準則 1.5 一般要求 概述 工作概述 廠商之設計責任 送審清單 設計、圖說、 配置圖與示意圖 界面作業 一般特性與保証 定義 縮寫 1.6 設計參數 一般要求 設備之獨立運作 處理機系統設施之使用 保全 電源供應 接地與聯結 電磁干擾 通風 特殊工具與測試設備 標準工具 1.11 管理系統 概述 設計審查 1.12 系統保證 概要 可靠度 維修度 系統安全 人因工程 1.13 系統支援 概述 技術支援 技術、操作與維修手冊 訓練 備品 2. 產品 3. 施工 3.1 拆移 3.2 安裝 4. 計量與計價 資訊年序 1.7 技術要求 概述 實體要求 修護 佈纜與配線 1.8 軟體 概述 軟體設計 軟體設計之核准 擴充文件 1.9 相容性 概述 車票規格 票箱 非法使用偵測系統 地板下方線槽之位置 中央資料處理機系統與 台北智慧卡公司清算中心之相容 性 1.10 特殊工具與測試設備 概述 印刷電路板測試設備 可消除可程式唯讀記憶 體之程式編寫設備 測試裝置手冊/軟體要 求

39 38 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Question 1: Feasibility of “Testable” 1.WORK ( 需求內容 ) - 可靠度需求; 項 目 MTBF 需求 ( 小時 ) 中央資料處理系統 20,000 車站處理機系統 20,000 2.APPLICABLE STANDARD - 3.VERIFICATION REQUIREMENT - 可靠度 / 維修度驗證; …. 調整期終了後,應開始執行 180 天之營運可靠度 / 維修 度驗證, …. 就全部已安裝之設備,廠商均應製作監視及性能報告,在 各項之平均故障間隔週期/平均故障間隔時間/平均修復 時間 (MCBF) /(MTBF) /(MTTR) 值,應經確證已達 90% 之可信度( confidence )。 ….

40 39 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Question 1: “Feasibility” of Testable No. of Failure(r)Test Ratio(M)Total Test Time(hr) ,000*2.3026=46,052(hr) ,000*3.8897=77, ,000*5.3223=106, ,000*6.6808=133, , , , , , , ,176 依據上述 MTBF 需求、 180 天 (4320 hours)Demonstration Test 與 GEM 表格, 單一中央資料處理系統 (20,000 hours MTBF) 要達到 46,052 hours “0” failure 之允收標準將是一項 non-feasible 之 test item 4.IMPACT - 可信度 90% 之 GEM (General Exponential Model) table : 1. 在簽約前即需將此 requirement 予以修訂為可行的諸如 5,000 小時 2. 軟體可靠度上無法同硬體以 MTBF 表示 ( 應改寫為諸如 1.5defets per 50 CPU operating hours)

41 40 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Question 2: “Incompleteness” of Requirement 1.WORK ( 需求內容 ) - “ 電磁干擾 - 電力及電子系統與子系統在其預定之操作環境 下運作應不受捷運工程局之其他操作設備所發出有害之電磁干擾影響,亦不得發 出有害之電磁干擾而影響捷運工程局之其他操作設備。廠商須確保儲存或傳輸之 資料能完全防禦電磁干擾而不致有所錯誤或遺漏。 ” 2.APPLICABLE STANDARD - 於該 Requirement 之相關準則中並未引用可依循 之標準 ( 包含 EMI 與 EMC) 。 3.DELIVERY DOCUMENT – None 4.VERIFICATION REQUIREMENT - None 5.IMPACT - (1) 設計文件、成本、風險、測試標準失去參考依據 ( 特別是頻譜 ) 、 (2) 無法在 WBS Level 5 之 “DATA” element 列示出相關文件 (NDI 或 DI) 、 (3) 將影響 繞線設計、 (4) 將影響未來測試之 “fault isolation” 此項問題適用於 “ 通風 ” 、 “ 電源供應 ” 需求 1. 在需求文件未於 applicable standard 中訂定參用標準,將造成後續 ATP 之 爭議

42 41 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Question 3: “Ambiguous” of LAN Requirement 1.WORK ( 需求內容 ) - “ 區域網路 (LAN) 及網路電纜 (Network Cables) 另依 IEEE802 國際標準之相關規定辦理 ” 2.APPLICABLE STANDARD - IEEE802 ,但未細訂至 Gigabit Ethernet 以光纖為傳輸介質的 IEEE 802.3z 標準、或 以銅線為傳輸媒介的 1000 Base-T 規格之制訂,即 IEEE 802.3ab 、 或 IEEE802.3u Fast Ethernet standard 、或 IEEE 無線區域網路 …. 3.DELIVERY DOCUMENT – None 4.VERIFICATION REQUIREMENT – None 5.IMPACT - (1) 區域網路介面卡之選用、 (2) 線材選用、 (3) 衰減率、有效距離允收規 格、 ….. 1. 在需求文件未於 applicable standard 中訂定參用標準,將造成後續 ATP 之 爭議

43 42 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Question 4: “Ambiguous” of Software Requirement 1.WORK ( 需求內容 ) - “ 針對中央資料處理機系統、車站處理機系統和每一 個別設備應用軟體,及個別設備微處理機軟體(個別設備微處機不包含 非為本契約專用研發之軟體)之所有軟體文件,皆應提送予工程司 ” 2.APPLICABLE STANDARD - SDG 2.0 、特別技術規範第 1.8 節 1.System Mode- None 3.DELIVERY DOCUMENT – 軟體發展計劃書、軟體需求規格書、介面規格書、 軟體設計文件、軟體細步設計文件、軟體測試計劃、軟體整合測試步驟、軟體測 試紀錄、軟體問題報告 4.VERIFICATION REQUIREMENT – None (Without TESTING BED) 5.IMPACT - (1)REWORK 、 (2)hard to perform ATP 、 (3)hard to plan test procedure 、 ….. 1. 在需求文件中未於 VCRI (Verification Cross Reference Table) 中訂定參用 允收方法,將造成後續 ATP 之爭議

44 43 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Question 5: “Ambiguous” of Test Equipment 1.WORK ( 需求內容 ) - 廠商應基於收費子系統內電子與機械及機電元件之測 試、故障排除( troubleshooting )、程式校準( program calibrating )、 編寫可程式唯讀記憶體程式及重新編寫可消除可程式唯讀記憶體程式之 需要來提供測試設備。 2.APPLICABLE STANDARD - None (if for Automatic Test Equipment) 1.Test Coverage- None 3.DELIVERY DOCUMENT – 測試裝置軟體手冊清單、標準工具 4.VERIFICATION REQUIREMENT – 5.IMPACT - (1) 難以規劃 O 、 I 、 D Level 之 support equipment 、 (2) 未定 定 test coverage 因此將造成允收認知之困擾、 (3) 無從得知對於 hardware fault isolation 之需求、 (3) 無從得知對於 software fault isolation 之需求

45 44 ( 尹守紀整理 ) May/25/2006 Question 6: “Feasibility” of Software MTBF 1.WORK ( 需求內容 ) - 包含軟體錯誤之所有關聯故障均應納入驗證平均故障 間隔週期/平均故障間隔時間之計算中。 2.APPLICABLE STANDARD - None 3.DELIVERY DOCUMENT – None 4.VERIFICATION REQUIREMENT – MTBF= 設備運轉時間 ( 總數 )/ 設備關聯故障次數 ( 總數 ) 5.IMPACT - (1) 此公式僅適用於純硬體件、


Download ppt "May/25/2006 ( 尹守紀整理 ) 0 About 〝 Requirements 〞 2005 年 11 月 國防工業發展協會 科技顧問 尹守紀"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google