Presentation on theme: "Renewable and non renowable energy:. 1.Renovable energy: RENEWABLE ENERGY : Is generally defined energy that comes from resources which are natural replenished."— Presentation transcript:
1.Renovable energy: RENEWABLE ENERGY : Is generally defined energy that comes from resources which are natural replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation,hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
2.HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY: 2.1 Ways of obtaining hydroelectric energy: Conventional (dams) : Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. A large pipe (the “penstock") delivers water to the turbine. Pumped-storage: This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storage is not an energy source, and appears as a negative number in listings. [ [
Run-of-the-river: Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment, or must be allowed to bypass the dam. In the United States, run of the river hydropower could potentially provide 60,000 MW (about 13.7% of total use in 2011 if continuously available). Tide: A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels. Tidal power is viable in a relatively small number of locations around the world. In Great Britain, there are eight sites that could be developed, which have the potential to generate 20% of the electricity used in 2012. Underground: An underground power station makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways, such as a waterfall or mountain lake. An underground tunnel is constructed to take water from the high reservoir to the generating hall built in an underground cavern near the lowest point of the water tunnel and a horizontal tailrace taking water away to the lower outlet waterway.
2.2 Advantages: Flexibility. Low power costs. Suitability for industrial applications. Reduced CO 2 emissions. Other uses of the reservoir.
2.3 Disadvanges : Ecosystem damage and loss of land. Siltation and flow shortage. Methane emissions (from reservoirs). Relocation.
3. WIND POWER: 3.1 Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.
3.2 Environmental effects: Compared to the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, the environmental impact of wind power is relatively minor in terms of pollution. Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air pollution, unlike fossil fuel power sources. The energy consumed to manufacture and transport the materials used to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy produced by the plant within a few months. While a wind farm may cover a large area of land, many land uses such as agriculture are compatible, with only small areas of turbine foundations and infrastructure made unavailable for use. There are reports of bird and bat mortality at wind turbines as there are around other artificial structures. The scale of the ecological impact may [ or may not be significant, depending on specific circumstances. Although many artificial structures can kill birds, wind power has a disproportionate effect on certain endangered bird species.An especially vulnerable group are raptors, which are slow to reproduce and favor the high wind speed corridors that wind turbine companies build turbines in, to maximize energy production. Although they have a negligible effect on most birds, in some locations there is a disproportionate effects on some birds of conservation concern, such as the golden eagle and raptor species.
However, a large meta-analysis of 616 individual studies on electricity production and its effects on avian mortality concluded that the most visible impacts of wind technology are not necessarily the most flagrant ones, as: “Wind turbines seem to present a significant threat as all their negative externalities are concentrated in one place, while those from conventional and nuclear fuel cycles are spread out across space and time. Avian mortality and wind energy has consequently received far more attention and research than the avian deaths associated with coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear power generators [although] study suggests that wind energy may be the least harmful to birds. ”Prevention and mitigation of wildlife fatalities, and protection of peat bogs affect the siting and operation of wind turbines. There are anecdotal reports of negative effects from noise on people who live very close to wind turbines. Peer-reviewed research has generally not supported these statements.
4. NON RENEWABLE ENERGY. Nuclear power: Some serious nuclear and radiation accidents have occurred. Benjamin K. Sovacool has reported that worldwide there have been 99 accidents at nuclear power plants. Fifty-seven accidents have occurred since the Chernobyl disaster, and 57% (56 out of 99) of all nuclear-related accidents have occurred in the USA. Nuclear power plant accidents include the Chernobyl accident (1986) with approximately 60 deaths so far attributed to the accident and a predicted, eventual total death toll, of from 4000 to 25,000 latent cancers deaths. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011), has not caused any radiation related deaths, with a predicted, eventual total death toll, of from 0 to 1000, and the Three Mile Island accident (1979), no causal deaths, cancer or otherwise, have been found in follow up studies of this accident Nuclear-powered submarine mishaps include the K-19 reactor accident (1961), the K-27 reactor accident (1968), and the K-431 reactor accident (1985). International research is continuing into safety improvements such as passively safe plants, and the possible future use of nuclear fusion.
In terms of lives lost per unit of energy generated, nuclear power has caused fewer accidental deaths per unit of energy generated than all other major sources of energy generation. Energy produced by coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydropower has caused more deaths per unit of energy generated, from air pollution and energy accidents. This is found in the following comparisons, when the immediate nuclear related deaths from accidents are compared to the immediate deaths from these other energy sources when the latent, or predicted, indirect cancer deaths from nuclear energy accidents are compared to the immediate deaths from the above energy sources, [ and when the combined immediate and indirect fatalities from nuclear power and all fossil fuels are compared, fatalities resulting from the mining of the necessary natural resources to power generation and to air pollution. With these data, the use of nuclear power has been calculated to have prevented a considerable number of fatalities, by reducing the proportion of energy that would otherwise have been generated by fossil fuels, and is projected to continue to do so.
5. Fossil Fuel: 5.1 Fossil energy : is that one that comes from the obtained biomass does million years and that has suffered big processes of transformation up to the formation of substances of great energetic content as the coal, the oil, or the natural gas, etc. It is not a type of renewable energy, by what it is not considered to be an energy of the biomass, but it is included between the fossil energies.
5.2 Types: Oil: The oil is an oily liquid consisted of carbon and hydrogen in different proportions. One thinks in depths that they change between the 600 and 5.000 meters. Coal: The coal is a mineral that was formed from the vegetable prehistoric remains, principally of the tree-shaped ferns. Natural gas: The natural gas is composed principally by methane, a compound made chemist of atoms of carbon and hydrogen. He is under land, habitually in company of oil. It is extracted by means of pipelines, and is stored directly in big containers of aluminium. Then the users are distributed across gas pipelines. Since it is odourless and colorless, on having extracted it it is mixed by a substance that gives him a strong and disagreeable smell. Thus, the persons can realize that a filtration or gas leak exists.
5.3 Advantages: They are easy to extract (only if it is an extraction to opened sky, yes it is an extraction in gallery His great availability is very costly, depending on the country. They are cheap, in comparison with other sources of energy. 5.4 Disadvantages: His use produces the gas emission that they turn out to be toxic for the life. A depletion of the reservations takes place to short or medium term. Used they contaminate the being more than other products than they might have used in his place.
Group opinion: We should demand from the governments and from the energetic companies that we want to consume energy proceeding from renewable energies. We should not consent the use of DIRTY ENERGIES that damage the environment and generate unequality, that contaminate our atmosphere NO TO OIL! NO TO COAL! NO TO PETROL!
Made by: Patricia Abolafio Jiménez Amin Bouhaik Bouhoussaine Belinda López Sonia Rosell Molina Dara Neylon