Presentation on theme: "The main components of the Romania hydrography are: the Danube river, the inland rivers, the groundwaters, the lakes and the Black Sea."— Presentation transcript:
The main components of the Romania hydrography are: the Danube river, the inland rivers, the groundwaters, the lakes and the Black Sea.
The most important European river, in terms of complexity, crosses the central and eastern Europe and flows into the Black Sea through a delta (the Danube Delta). The second longest river and debit of Europe after the Volga river. The second river as traffic of goods, after the Rhine river. The Danube river affluents (the most important ones in debit): Sava, Tisa, Drava, Inn.
The Danube river ensures the link between the Black Sea and the North Sea via the Danube-Black Sea Canal and in the west through a system of canals, Main and Rhine.
It crosses 10 countries (Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine) and 4 capitals (Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, Belgrade).
Its importance for Romania: it collects the hydrographic network a hydropower potential (by the construction of the hydro lakes and the hydros from the Iron Gate and the Grand Isle) it provides a river link between the Central and Eastern Europe it influences the natural environment features. Iron Gate Dam Danube – Black Sea Chanel
Cazane Gorges (150m wide, 53m depth) On the left shore the Decebal Statue is carved in the rock. It is the largest statue in Europe (55m high and 25m wide, 6m less than Liberty Statue from New York) The building of this statue lasted 10 years (1994-2004) and it cost more than one milion dolars
the youngest land in Europe (it grows larger by 40 m of land every year); the second largest delta in Europe (Volga is the first) and the 23 rd in the world;
the third in ecological significance among the 300 natural parks of the world; a high productive area generating a large range of biological resources; a place with the richest ornithological fauna in the world (over 250 species).
The Black Sea is a remainder of the Sarmatic Sea (which stretched from Vienna basin to the Caspian Sea); It was called Pontus Euxinus by the Greeks ( "large welcoming") A continental sea – having contacts with the Planetary Ocean through the Bosphorus Straits (to the Marmara Sea), Dardanelles Straits (the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea), Gibraltar Straits (to the Atlantic Ocean)
It has reduced tides (below 10 cm) It has low salinity (16-17%) The Romanian Black Sea coast - 244 km - stretches between Sulina and Vama Veche
The water temperature is according to the wheater: in summer it reaches up to 29 degrees Celsius and in winter drops to 0 degrees Celsius. Biocenosis: lower algae, green algae, brown red. Animals are represented by worms, molluscs, fish and birds (esspecially gulls). Jellyfish Sea anemone Catfish
The number of the lakes is 3450, occupying 1% of Romania's surface The Razim-Sinoe Complex is situated in the south of the Danube Delta and occupies a total area of about 1145 square kilometers, from which the lakes area is 863 square kilometers. Razim has 415 square kilometers and is the largest lake in Romania RAZIM LAGUNA
Near the Balea lake it was built the first ice hotel from Romania. The lake has approximately 5 acres and maximum depth 11m. It is a scientific reservation since 1932. From the lake the Balea Stream flows, which at the altitude of 1230m, gives birth to the Balea Waterfall. The waterfall has a height of 60 m. Balea Lake is located at 2034 m altitude in the Fagaras Mountains.
Saint Ana Lake is the only volcanic lake in Europe and is located in the Grand Massif Ciomatu from the Harghita Mountains, at 950 m altitude. The lake is formed in the crater of a former volcano and the whole area is declared a natural reservation. Its dimensions: length 620 m, 460 m wide, maximum depth: 7 m, Volume: 786,300 cubic meters, Area: 22 ha.
Red Lake is a natural dam lake, located at 980m altitude, near Bicaz Canyon. The lake has been formed recently in the summer of 1837, when after heavy rains, a large amount of rocky debris from the northern versatile of the Killer Rock slipped, blocking the way of Bicăjel Stream. The water has been accumulated and it formed a natural dam lake. The name Red Lake comes from the tertiary red sandstone, slightly disaggregated and transported by the Red Stream, which painted in red the surroundings up to the lake. Its unusual magic is amplified by the bare trunks of the trees which once were there, which can be seen on the surface of the water.
The Techirghiol Lake is a sea-river liman with salty water, being the richest lake with therapeutic mud in Romania. It is situated 17 km south of Constanta and is separated from the Black Sea by a litoral shore. It is the largest salty lake in our country (11.65 square kilometers). Currently it forms a fauna reservation (where over 120 species of creatures live, many of them are rarity).
In Romania there are no less than 3000 thermal water wells; most of them are situated around the Carpathian Mountains. Our country has 70 SPAs and some of them were founded by the ancient Romans. The most important SPAs provide treatment of rheumatic diseases, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive disturbances and nervous systems but also and dermatological and gynaecological problems.
Herculane SPA o The resort is situated in the south- western Romania, at an altitude of 168 m, 8 km from the border with Mehedinti County and only 25 km from the border with Serbia. o Mountainous climate, with Mediterranean influences, sedative-matter, mineral isothermal and hyperthermia water (38-60 °C), slightly radioactive, hypotonic, with different chemical compositions: sulfur, chloride, calcium, sodium, chloride, sodium, calcium, oligominerals.
Felix SPA Felix is a climatic SPA and a resort town in Bihor County, in the west part of Romania, at 100km from Simleu. It is the largest resort with permanent regime in Romania, being the second, after the Black Sea coast, in the number of accommodation in Romania. Curative factors: rheumatism, arthritis, arthrosis, spondylosis, muscle disease condition, neurological and metabolic deficiencies.
Tusnad SPA Tuşnad is a town in Harghita County, Romania. It is located in the southern part of Ciuc Depression, between Harghita and Bodoc mountains, on the valley of the Olt river, at an altitude of 650 m. Therapeutic indications : Cardiovascular diseases, Nervous system disorders, Endocrine disorders, Digestive disorders
Broscarie SPA A very nice thermal water source is located at three km from Simleu Silvaniei where, in the recent years, a SPA center was developed. The water emerges from the Earth at a temperature of 38 °C giving possibility to the people living around to take advantage of its curative effects (Rheumatism, arthritis, arthrosis, spondylosis, muscle disease condition). The popular name of the place is “Broscarie” which in Romanian means “lake with frogs”, due to the lake formed after the water emerged from the depth, lake in which many frogs found refuge and a place for living.
Romania – is on the 3rd place after France and Italy regarding the volume of the mineral waters owned. Origin: - meteoric water infiltrated in the depths where it dissolved mineral salts and gases from the rocks which it passed. The majority of waters in Romania are of this kind. - igneous - water from dehydrating the magma. Types of waters: -carbonated -salt water (most prevalent) -sulfide -bicarbonate
Main bottled mineral waters in Romania: Dorna - Recommendations: heart disease and rheumatic disease. Poiana Negri - Recommendations: heart disease and rheumatic disease. Tusnad - Recommendations: cardiovascular diseases, disorders of the nervous system, digestive disorders, endocrine disorders. Zizin - Recommendations: circulatory system diseases, digestive disorders
. Borsec – the "Queen of Mineral Water” Awards: - 1873 – at Vienna International Fair," Medal of Merit “ and " Gold Medal " 2004 - gold medal and the title of the " Best Mineral Water of the World" in the most important worldwide competitions of water - Berkeley Springs International Water Tasting Awards in West Virginia. Recommendations: circulatory system diseases, gynecological diseases, diseases of the kidneys and endocrine system
Roua – in 2005 it has got the gold medal in the international competition of mineral waters Tasting, from Berkeley Springs, West Virginia, USA. Perenna it is the purest water in Romania, being 96% identical with the famous mineral water Evian, from France, global standard of the mineral water purity; it appeared on the market in 2007