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SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Objectives Lecture # 01 Prologue: The Software Process SWE 316: Software Design & Architecture  To review software.

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Presentation on theme: "SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Objectives Lecture # 01 Prologue: The Software Process SWE 316: Software Design & Architecture  To review software."— Presentation transcript:

1 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Objectives Lecture # 01 Prologue: The Software Process SWE 316: Software Design & Architecture  To review software process and its phases Chapter 0

2 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Main Phases of Software Process Software Process: a procedure followed by the development team to produce an application. 1.Requirements Analysis (answers “WHAT?”)  Specifying what the application must do 2.Design (answers “HOW?”)  Specifying what the parts will be, and how they will fit together 3.Implementation (A.K.A. “CODING”)  Writing the code 4.Testing (type of VERIFICATION)  Executing the application with test data for input 5.Maintenance (REPAIR or ENHANCEMENT)  Repairing defects and adding capability 2 Sec 0.1 Software Process ModelsRequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 2 of 21

3 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Personal Finance Example  Requirements Analysis: Diagrams and text  e.g., “ … The application shall display the balance in the user’s bank account. …”  Design: Diagrams and text  e.g., “ … The design will consist of the classes CheckingAccount, SavingsAccount, …”  Implementation: Source code  e.g., … class CheckingAccount{ double balance; … } … 3 Software Process ModelsRequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 3 of 21

4 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Personal Finance Example (Cont’d)  Testing: Test cases and test results  e.g., “… With test case: deposit $44.92 / deposit $32.00 / withdraw $ / … the balance was $ , which is correct. …”  Maintenance: Modified design, code, and text  e.g., Defect repair: “Application crashes when balance is $0 and attempt is made to withdraw funds. …”  e.g., Enhancement: “Allow operation with Riyal.” 4 Software Process ModelsRequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 4 of 21

5 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Waterfall Process  Basic software process in which requirements analysis, design, coding, testing, and maintenance are performed in sequence, but with some overlap. 5 Software Process Models RequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 5 of 21

6 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Waterfall Process (cont.)  Why a Pure Waterfall Process is Usually Not Practical ?  Don’t know up front everything wanted and needed  Usually hard to visualize every detail in advance  We can only estimate the costs of implementing requirements  To gain confidence in an estimate, we need to design and actually implement parts, especially the riskiest ones  We will probably need to modify requirements as a result  We often need to execute intermediate builds  Stakeholders need to gain confidence  Designers and developers need confirmation they're building what’s needed and wanted  Team members can't be idle while the requirements are being completed  Typically put people to work on several phases at once 6 Software Process Models RequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 6 of 21

7 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture The Spiral Process 7 Software Process Models RequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 7 of 21

8 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Common Procedures  Work Against the Product of Prior Phase  In each phase of the software process, we design and code within the specifications produced by the prior phase.  Inspections  An artifact is a document or code.  An inspection of an artifact is the process of reading through the artifact in a complete and entirely thorough manner. 8 Software Process Models RequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 8 of 21

9 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Requirements Analysis  The process of understanding what’s needed or wanted, and expressing the results in writing. 9 Sec 0.2 Software ProcessModels Requirements DesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 9 of 21

10 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture The Challenges of Requirements Analysis  Express requirements in ordinary, clear English  Non-technical  From the user’s perspective  Organize the requirements into logical groupings  Make easy to access and change  Challenging for real applications  Arrange for the management of requirements  A procedure must be developed in advance for keeping the requirements documents up to date  Who, how, and when 10 Software ProcessModels Requirements DesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 10 of 21

11 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Design (The heart of this course)  The design of an application expresses how the application is to be constructed.  It describes the parts involved and how they are to assembled.  It consists of a set of documents (diagrams and text) 11 Sec 0.3 Software ProcessModelsRequirements Design CodingTestingMaintenance Page 11 of 21

12 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Tips on Coding  Code only against a design  Specify precisely what each method accomplishes 12 Sec 0.4 Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesign Coding TestingMaintenance Page 12 of 21

13 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Tips on Coding (cont.)  Before compiling, satisfy yourself that the code you have typed is correct. Read it thoroughly.  ‘correct’ means that is satisfies what’s required of it  This is “author-inspection”  Build-a-little-Test-a-little 1.Add a relatively small amount of code (“build-a-little”) 2.(Again): Read what you have typed and correct it if necessary until you are totally satisfied it’s correct 3.Compile 4.Test the new functionality (“test-a-little”) 13 Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesign Coding TestingMaintenance Page 13 of 21

14 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Author-Inspect Before Compiling Inspect and edit the block of code you have just written until you are convinced it does exactly what it is meant to do. Only then compile it. 14 Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesign Coding TestingMaintenance Page 14 of 21

15 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Testing  The testing phase consists of supplying input to the application and comparing the output with that mandated by the software requirements specification.  Helps to uncover defects  Proves the presence of defects, but never their absence 15 Sec 0.5 Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesignCoding Testing Maintenance Page 15 of 21

16 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Types of Testing  Black-box testing  Compares the output obtained with the output specified by the requirements document  Does not take into account the manner in which the application is designed  White-box testing  Based on the design  Exercise specific design features such as branching, loops, interfaces, etc.  Unit Tests  Tests on parts of an application (individual methods, classes, etc.)  Integration Tests  Tests the software units work together correctly  System Tests  Tests of an entire application Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesignCoding Testing Maintenance Page 16 of 21

17 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Tips on Testing  Test early and often  Test with extreme values  Very small, very big, etc.  Borderline  “Illegal” values  Vary test cases  Don’t repeat tests with same test data except when specifically intended 17 Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesignCoding Testing Maintenance Page 17 of 21

18 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Testing  Test early and often: Note that “passed all tests” doesn’t equate to “bug free.” 18 Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesignCoding Testing Maintenance Page 18 of 21

19 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Maintenance  Maintenance refers to the work performed on the application that occurs after it has been delivered.  Types of maintenance  Corrective (Defect Removal)  Finding and fixing all inconsistencies with the requirements document  Perfective (Enhancement)  Introducing new or improved capability  Adaptive  Adapts software to new environment  Preventive  changing some aspect of the system to prevent failures 19 Sec 0.6 Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesignCodingTesting Maintenance Page 19 of 21

20 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Summary of Software Process  A way of going about the creation and upkeep of a software product  Commonly based on the Waterfall process 1.Specify requirements 2.Create design 3.Write code 4.Test 5.Maintain 20 In sequence with some overlap Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 20 of 21

21 SWE 316: Software Design and Architecture Reading 21 Prologue - The Software Process (Page 1-18) Software ProcessModelsRequirementsDesignCodingTestingMaintenance Page 21 of 21


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