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Project Selection and Management SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN, 6 TH EDITION DENNIS, WIXOM, AND ROTH © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 1 Roberta M. Roth
Learning Objectives Explain how projects are selected in some organizations. Describe various approaches to the SDLC that can be used to structure a development project. Explain how to select a project methodology based on project characteristics. Become familiar with project estimation. Be able to create a project work plan. Describe project staffing issues and concerns. Describe and apply techniques to coordinate and manage the project. Explain how to manage risk on the project. © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2
Project Selection HOW SPECIFIC PROJECTS ARE CHOSEN © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3
Project Selection Issues Ways to Characterize Projects o Size o Cost o Purpose o Length o Risk o Scope o Economic Value © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4
Project Selection Issues Approval committee uses the system request and the feasibility study o Project portfolio perspective – how does the project fit within the entire portfolio of projects? o Trade-offs needed: select projects to form a balanced project portfolio o Viable projects may be rejected or deferred due to project portfolio issues. © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5
Project Portfolio Management PPM software collects and manages information about all projects – on-going and awaiting approval. Companies stay up to date on projects and adapt to changing conditions. Features: project prioritization, employee allocation, real- time project monitoring, flagging cost and time variances, monitoring economic feasibility. © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6
Creating the Project Plan Once a project is approved, the project manager must: o Select the best project methodology o Develop a project work plan o Establish a staffing plan o Create ways to coordinate and control the project © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 7
Creating the Project Plan DEVELOPING A PLAN FOR A SUCCESSFUL RESULT © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 8
Selecting a Project Methodology Methodology: A formalized approach to implementing the SDLC o A series of steps to perform and deliverables to produce Methodology Sources o Internally developed by organizations o Consulting firms o Software vendors o Government agencies © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9
Selecting a Project Methodology - Issues These factors influence the best choice: o Clarity of User Requirements o Familiarity with Technology o System Complexity o System Reliability o Time Frame o Schedule Visibility © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10
Structured Systems Development © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Based upon SDLC Assumes a project phase is complete before moving to the next phase o Waterfall Development o Parallel Development o V-model Goal – doing each phase thoroughly before moving forward ensures correct and high-quality outcomes 11
Waterfall Development Methodology o Move from phase to phase o Emphasis on deliverables from one phase flowing into the next phase © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12
Waterfall Methodology Assessment STRENGTHS System requirements identified long before construction begins Requirements are “frozen” as project proceeds – no moving targets allowed WEAKNESSES Must wait a long time before there is “visible” evidence of the new system Takes a long time from start to finish © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13
Parallel Development Methodology o Subdivide the project into subprojects that can be worked on at the same time. o Reduce the overall project length © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 14
Parallel Methodology Assessment STRENGTHS Reduces overall project time (compared to Waterfall) Reduces the need for rework; with shorter time frame, less chance of requirements changing WEAKNESSES Creating subprojects requires careful design decisions Integrating subprojects at the end can be complex and difficult © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15
V-Model Development Methodology o Emphasizes system quality through text plan development © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16
V-Model Methodology Assessment STRENGTHS Simple and straightforward Quality improves through the emphasis on testing Including Quality Assurance expertise early in the project strengthens system quality WEAKNESSES Rigid Difficult to use in a dynamic business environment © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 17
Rapid Application Development Incorporate special techniques and tools: o CASE tools o JAD sessions o Visual programming languages o Code generators Goal – get some portion of system developed quickly and in the users’ hands © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18
Three RAD Approaches Iterative development o A series of versions developed sequentially System Prototyping o Create prototype (model) of system and “grow” it into the final system Throw-away prototyping o Prototype alternative designs in an experimental way o Build system following prototype design but discard the actual prototype © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19
Iterative Development Methodology o RAD approach o Develop system in series of versions © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20
Iterative Development Methodology Assessment STRENGTHS Users get a system to use quickly Users identify additional needs for later versions based on real experiences with current version WEAKNESSES Users faced with using an incomplete system for a time Users must be patient and wait for fully- functional system © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21
System Prototyping Development Methodology o RAD approach o Create a rough version of system quickly and “grow” it into final system with repetitive refinement © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 22
System Prototyping Methodology Assessment STRENGTHS Users get to work with prototype very quickly Feedback cycles let users identify changes and refine real requirements WEAKNESSES Superficial analysis may cause problems Initial design decisions may be poor Overlooked features may be hard to add later © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 23
Throwaway Prototyping Development Methodology o RAD approach o Adds emphasis on experimenting with design options before design is finalized o Design options are thrown-away, but learning from them is factored into final design © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 24
Throwaway Prototyping Methodology Assessment STRENGTHS Uncertainty is minimized Important issues are understood before building the final system WEAKNESSES May take longer (compared to system prototyping) © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 25
Agile Development Methodologies o Extreme Programming (XP), Scrum, and others o Focus on short cycles that produce a complete software product o Highly adaptable in dynamic environments © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 26
Agile Methodologies Assessment STRENGTHS Fast delivery of results Works well in projects with undefined or changing requirements WEAKNESSES Requires discipline Significant user involvement is essential Initial high learning curve Works best in smaller projects © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 27
Selection Summary © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 28 Ability to develop systems WaterfallParallelV-ModelIterativeSystem Proto- typing Throwaway Prototyping Agile Develop- ment With unclear user requirements Poor GoodExcellent With unfamiliar technology Poor GoodPoorExcellentPoor That are complexGood PoorExcellentPoor That are reliableGood ExcellentGoodPoorExcellentGood With a short time schedule PoorGoodPoorExcellent GoodExcellent With schedule visibility Poor Excellent Good
Project Management Tasks PREPARING TO LAUNCH THE PROJECT © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 29
Project Manager’s Balancing Act © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 30 Project Management involves making trade- offs… Modifying one element requires adjusting the others Project Size Project Cost Project Time
Project Estimation The process of assigning projected values for time and effort Sources of estimates o Methodology in use o Actual previous projects o Experienced developer s Estimates begin as a range and become more specific as the project progresses o Industry standards o Function point estimation (Appendix 2A) © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 31
Project Estimates Using Industry Standard Percentages INDUSTRY STANDARD PERCENTAGESEXAMPLE © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 32 IF 4 months are required for Planning, then 15% X = 4, where X = overall length of project X = 4 / 15% X = months for entire project Therefore: ◦ Planning (15%): 4 months ◦ Analysis (20%): 5.33 months ◦ Design (35%): 9.33 months ◦ Implementation (30%): 8 months ◦ Total Project Length: months
Identifying Tasks Use established guidelines – existing methodologies Use analogies – model previous projects’ task lists Top-down approach – break high level tasks into smaller, detailed tasks Organize into work breakdown structure © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 33
Example – Determining Tasks using Top-down Approach Grade programming assignments 1.Create grading plan A.Develop grading rubric B.Develop test plan, test data, and check figures 2.Prepare programming projects for grading A.Download submitted projects B.For all projects, extract zipped files 3.For all projects, A.Administer test plan and check performance and results B.Check code for required elements C.Apply rubric and determine final score. © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 34
Typical Workplan Entry © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 35
Project Work Plan © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 36
Project Work Plan © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 37
Staffing Considerations Match skills to project needs whenever possible Consider technical skills and interpersonal skills o All IS work is done in teams o Technical skills are not sufficient – need to be able to work with others o Use training and outside sources (consultants, vendor support) when skills are not readily available Staffing levels will change over a project’s lifetime Adding staff adds overhead; not always productive © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 38
Motivation Use monetary rewards cautiously Use intrinsic rewardsrewards o Recognition o Achievement o The work itself o Responsibility o Advancement o Chance to learn new skills © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 39
Motivation Consider the “de-motivators” … DO NOT o Assign unrealistic deadlines o Ignore good efforts o Accept a low-quality product o Give everyone on the project the same raise o Make an important decision without the team’s input o Maintain poor working conditions © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 40
Assuring Group Performance Make sure team understands the project and its goals Establish operating procedures (Project Charter) o Availability o Status reporting o Meetings Ensure that team members get to know each other Establish methods for dealing with problems © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 41
Project Estimates Require Refinement o Even projects with high-quality estimates will need refinement o Project managers must adjust estimated time throughout the project © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 42
Managing Scope Beware of scope creep Use JAD and prototyping to minimize scope creep pressure Implement formal change approval process Defer additional requirements as future system enhancements © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 43
Timeboxing Time estimating techniques may reveal that the project requires more time than we have available Timeboxing helps in these situations o Set a tight but realistic deadline. Identify core, essential functional requirements o Team limits its focus just to essential functions o High quality is stressed o Other functions will be added later o Repeat to add refinements and enhancements © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 44
When a Target Date is Missed… Don’t assume you can catch up The ONLY situation in which you can make up time is when: o The remainder of the project is simpler than the part you fell behind on, and o The remainder of the project is simpler than you expected when the original estimates were made. Evaluate the complexity of the remainder of the project to determine the correct schedule adjustment. Adding people is not always the right way to handle schedule slippages. © 2015 JOHN WILEY & SONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 45
Basic SDLC Models. Agenda SDLC definition Waterfall SDLC V-Shape SDLC Spiral SDLC RUP SDLC Agile methods.
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