Presentation on theme: "State of Art Minihydro Technologies for Electrification"— Presentation transcript:
1State of Art Minihydro Technologies for Electrification The NEP Workshop OnOff–grid Electrification in MyanmarJan 28 – 29, 2015State of Art Minihydro Technologies for ElectrificationARUN KUMAR, Ph.D.Chair Professor (Renewable Energy) and CSO,Alternate Hydro Energy Centre,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,Roorkee , Uttarakhand, India
2SHP New TechnologyCan be installed in existing water infrastructure eg. barrages, dams, irrigation channel falls and navigation locks;Located close to villages to serve the usersHave a high level of local contents both in terms of materials and work force.Even though hydropower is over 100 years old, each of hydro projects is unique especially for its civil works.Efforts are to improve the efficiency of the various components of hydropower system,reduce the maintenance and operation cost,increase the life of the main components,optimise the utilisation of water especially in view of conflicting demand, competition with other sources.The new materials, design and construction techniquesNew technologies adopted for weirs, intakes, penstock, controls, turbines, generators
3Types of SHP schemes Run-of-river Storage/Dam Toe based Many countries classified as:Pico/village 5 kW & belowMicro kW & belowMini 2 MW & belowSmall 25 MW & belowMedium MW & belowLarge above 100 MWRun-of-riverStorage/Dam Toe basedCanal Fall/BarrageIn streamPumped StorageIntl. Training Programme on Rural Electricification with Small Hydropower March , 2012
4Types of Hydropower Run of River: Reservoir Based Hydropower Pumped storageCanal Fall Based
5Low head power plant (4. 5MW) Madhavmantri, (head 4 Low head power plant (4.5MW) Madhavmantri, (head 4.5 m) Kaveri River, IndiaLow head power plant (90 MW) BIRSFELDEN, (head 3 to 9 m) Rhine river, SwitzerlandExamples
6Social Sector SHPs- Commercial SHPs- PURPOSE of SHP aims to supply electricity specially in stand alone mode,characterized with poor load factor and of small capacityoften involved in distribution alsoOften are fully supported by governmentO&M is recovered through user charges collectionCommercial SHPs-aims to sell electricity to power distributing or trading companies or for captive use,are grid connected and are relatively larger capacityhave high load factorFinancially soundBoth are required and different level of approach, subsidy, tariff etc are needed
7Local hydropower on Nam Ngouang Transmission lineRotating unitGuiding water
19Comparison penstock material FrictionWeightCorrosionCostJointingPressureDuctileiron*******Asbestoscement***Concrete*****Wood staveGRPuPVCMild steelHDPE*= poor *****= Excellent
20Energy Recovery on gravity based water supply lines Recovering energy at this location have no impact on the flow or pressure`A Plan of a gravity based water network and possible locations of turbines
21Electro mechanical equipments a. Electrical Equipment· Generator (Synchronous and Induction)· Control and Protections· Transformers· HT switchgear· LT switchgearb. Mechanical Equipment· Hydraulic Turbine· Governor· Inlet control (valve/ gate)· Speed Increaser (low head application)· Advances in Governor Tech.-complete components.
22Micro Hydro Quality standard In view of quick implementation as well as to ensure quality of works “Micro Hydro Quality Standard” was prepared and issued by AHEC, IIT Roorkee India In 2005
23CATEGORY WISE RECOMMENDATION Category A(Upto 10 kW)Category B(Above10kW and upto 50 kW)Category C (Above 50 kW and upto 100 kW)Cross FlowPump as turbinePeltonTurgoAxial Flow TurbineAny other turbine meeting the technical requirementTurgo ImpulseFrancisPump as TurbineSynchronous/ Induction -Single Phase/3 phaseSynchronous/ Induction3 PhaseSynchronous240 V, 1 –phase,50 Hz415 V 3 phase,415 V, 3 phase,Standard / Special generators designed to withstand against continuous runaway condition.CATEGORY WISE RECOMMENDATIONRECOMMENDATION
24Insulation and Temperature Rise Class F/H insulation and Class B Temperature riseMinimum required Weighted Average Efficiency (T Av)0.50 x T T5045%50%60%Controller (Preferable/Micro processor based)(ELC) Electronics load controller or IGC Induction Generation Controller(ELC) Electronic Load Controller (preferred) or IGC Induction Generator Controller(ELC) Electronic Load Controller or Flow Control GovernorBallast LoadAir heaterWater HeaterWater heaterInertia and FlywheelAdequate flywheel should be provided for isolated operation.Switchgear / Earth Fault ProtectionMCB/MCCB for O.C. ProtectionProvide Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)/Residual current operated circuit breakerMonitoring & ProtectionCurrent, voltage, frequencyStator temperatureOvercurrent (stator)Maximum & minimum voltageReverse PowerOver/under frequencyBearing temperatureMeteringAs required.
25Case study of “Ramgad MHP” in District Nainital Installed Capacity = 100 KWYear of Installation = 1995No. of Unit = 2x50 KWNet Head = 50 mDesign Discharge = 382 LPSNo. of operators = 1x3(shifts)Electrician = 1 No.Electrification = 372 HouseholdsLocal Grid Network = 15 Kms.Operation & Maintained= By Ramgad Urja Samiti having 12 Members from user villages including 30% women members.
27Ramgad Micro Hydel Project Total No. of Unit GeneratedUnits consumed by villagersRs 2 per unit)100 % of revenue received from Villagers being provided to Village Energy Committee(Tariff as per UPCL Rs per unit)Remaining surplus unit are supplied to grid25 % of revenue received from UPCL is being provided to VEC75 % to UREDA against capital InvestmentsRamgad Micro Hydel ProjectConsumption of UnitsRevenue generated
28The Present Scenario at Ramgarh As on date, the project system is effectively functional and being successfully managed by the user committee. The success is clearly visible in terms of the followings:5 Trained Operators are operating the plant regularly.The Plant Load Factor reached up to 80%100% metering in all the 372 householdsTariff as per the UPCL rates.All incandescent bulbs replaced with CFLs.No overloading during peak hourSurplus power generating Rs per unit from the UPCL.
29Electricity bill collection efficiency increased up to 90%. Regular meetings of user committee.About M units of surplus electricity has been fed into the grid from January, 2005 for which UREDA has received an amount of Rs M from UPCL.User committee having Rs M as bank balance.Replacement of 1000 traditional bulbs with LED Bulb.Installation of 100 LED Street Light in the beneficiary villages.The project site is being developed as tourist place by local administration with eco-friendly environment and waterfall.The above facts display that Ramgad Small Hydro Project is working as a self sustained small hydro project.
30Institutional framework Project AllotmentProject IdentificationSNAsSNAs, Community or Private DevelopersClearances and Regulatory ProvisionsForest DepartmentIrrigation DepartmentPublic works Deptt,Water supply depttSERC (Tariff Setting)State distribution or transmission utilityGrid ConnectivityOff GridGovernment Support- MNRE (CFA), MoP (DDG), RMDD (NREGA), DST, NECCredit Availability- NABARD, REC,Rural BanksPPA- Energy and Power DepartmentSNAs, Community, Private Developers, Technology Suppliers , civil contractors, Power UtilitiesFinancial ClosureConstructionOperation and Maintenance + Capacity BuildingCommunity, SNAs, contractors
31Existing Ownership Model for off-grid rural electrification Implementing agencyProject developerConstructionState governmentState Renewable Energy Development Agencies , or/andDepartments promoting renewable energy, or/andState Utilities, or/andThe identified CPSUsState agencies, technology suppliers, Corporate houses, Equipment Manufacturers and Contractors, Self Help Groups, Users Associations, Individuals, Registered Societies, Cooperatives, Panchayats, Local bodies, their Consortiums / SPVs / JVsO & M for 5 years (may vary)Capacity building for villagersSupply of power to villagersCollection of tariff from villagersGap between O &M cost and revenue recovery to be reimbursed by the Implementing Agency out of its service charges
32Cross linkages with other programmes Backward linkagesRural electrification policyCentral financial AssistanceREP schemeRural Management and Development DepartmentForward linkagesRural development programmesUse of tail race water for irrigation as required by the villageMini and micro hydro projects will be integrated with irrigation, education, health, drinking water, small-scale industry & ropewaysThe women’s development, irrigation, drinking water, community saving, health, forests, industries, environmental conservation, road, micro-finance, literacy campaign programmes, which are conducted at the local level will be implemented by integrating with the rural energy development programmes
33Hybrid Energy Generation- power-on-demand from an energy system sourced by intermittent renewable energy source
34Typical village load and Hydro during Lean season AHEC/MNRE/Sept DELHI
37Challenges observed on existing small plants and recommendations Capacity development is the key to success for scaling up of SHP programme for planning, oversight, and monitoring; training to all project developers, facilitators, financial institutions and community members; adopting the standard equipments and designsUpfront public financingEncouraging higher participation of private sectorClarity in Policies and regulationsSetting up and enhancing institutions capacitySHP development efforts are more of ad hoc type (lack of experience sharing, absence of business objectives)
38for capacity building Areas: Resources Required: Planning DesignProcurementExecutionO&MFinancingPolicyResources Required:Human resourcesLaboratoryLibraryNetworking for data, experts, suppliers, institutionsFinance
39Alternate Hydro Energy Centre- IIT Roorkee Exclusive academic center of IIT Roorkee focusing on SHP development and recognized as National Resource Centre for Small Hydropower.Large national database for resource assessment for SHP development and rural electrification createdReal time Digital Simulator for shp plants for training and research.Expertise for field testing and performance evaluation of SHP stations e.Prepared the National Standards/ Code of Practices for SHP development.Imparting training and educationSystematic state master plans for shp and remote village electrification
40Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) for Small Hydropower Plant RTDS at Alternate Hydro Energy Centre IIT Roorkee
42ESTABLISHMENT OF R&D HYDRAULIC TURBINE LABORATORY R&D hydro turbine Laboratory of International level at AHEC- IIT Roorkeeresearch & developmentturbine-model testing,human resource development (HRD)generation of design datadesign validation through CFD analysisFirst independent facility in the regionHead m and discharge 1000 lpsBuilding 15 x 24 m height to – 6.5 mWater storage cubic mLaboratory is expected to be commissioned by June 2015Sponsor- Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, GoI