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State of Art Minihydro Technologies for Electrification

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1 State of Art Minihydro Technologies for Electrification
The NEP Workshop On Off–grid Electrification in Myanmar Jan 28 – 29, 2015 State of Art Minihydro Technologies for Electrification ARUN KUMAR, Ph.D. Chair Professor (Renewable Energy) and CSO, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology  Roorkee, Roorkee , Uttarakhand,  India  

2 SHP New Technology Can be installed in existing water infrastructure eg. barrages, dams, irrigation channel falls and navigation locks; Located close to villages to serve the users Have a high level of local contents both in terms of materials and work force. Even though hydropower is over 100 years old, each of hydro projects is unique especially for its civil works. Efforts are to improve the efficiency of the various components of hydropower system, reduce the maintenance and operation cost, increase the life of the main components, optimise the utilisation of water especially in view of conflicting demand, competition with other sources. The new materials, design and construction techniques New technologies adopted for weirs, intakes, penstock, controls, turbines, generators

3 Types of SHP schemes Run-of-river Storage/Dam Toe based
Many countries classified as: Pico/village 5 kW & below Micro kW & below Mini 2 MW & below Small 25 MW & below Medium MW & below Large above 100 MW Run-of-river Storage/Dam Toe based Canal Fall/Barrage In stream Pumped Storage Intl. Training Programme on Rural Electricification with Small Hydropower March , 2012

4 Types of Hydropower Run of River: Reservoir Based Hydropower
Pumped storage Canal Fall Based

5 Low head power plant (4. 5MW) Madhavmantri, (head 4
Low head power plant (4.5MW) Madhavmantri, (head 4.5 m) Kaveri River, India Low head power plant (90 MW) BIRSFELDEN, (head 3 to 9 m) Rhine river, Switzerland Examples

6 Social Sector SHPs- Commercial SHPs- PURPOSE of SHP
aims to supply electricity specially in stand alone mode, characterized with poor load factor and of small capacity often involved in distribution also Often are fully supported by government O&M is recovered through user charges collection Commercial SHPs- aims to sell electricity to power distributing or trading companies or for captive use, are grid connected and are relatively larger capacity have high load factor Financially sound Both are required and different level of approach, subsidy, tariff etc are needed

7 Local hydropower on Nam Ngouang
Transmission line Rotating unit Guiding water

8 Small Hydro owned by individuals

9 Small Hydro owned by EDC in Combodia


11 In stream- Japan

Hydrodynamic screws Example Kindberg, Austria Head: 3.7 m (< 10 m) Discharge: 5 m³/s (< 8 m³/s) Power Output: 142 kW Efficiency: ~80 % Speed: 21 rpm Weight: 24 t, Dia: 3.6 m, Steffturbine Head: 2.5 m and above Discharge: m³/s Power Output: 5-20 kW Efficiency: ~80 %

13 Typical In-Pipe Turbine Generator
[KITL, 2013]

14 Total Installed Cost (source: IRENA 2014)


16 SHP Technology Components
Civil works Diversion weir/ barrage Power channel/tunnel/pipe Desilting Forebay tank/ balancing reservoir Penstock anchor blocks Bye pass arrangements/spillways Power House Building Tail race channel Electro mechanical works Equipment Transmission and Distribution works Power evacuation arrangements

17 Diversion structure Dam Spillway Energy dissipation arrangement Fish pass Residual flow arrangements Water conveyance system Intake Canals/pipes Tunnels Penstocks


19 Comparison penstock material
Friction Weight Corrosion Cost Jointing Pressure Ductile iron **** * ** Asbestos cement *** Concrete ***** Wood stave GRP uPVC Mild steel HDPE *= poor *****= Excellent

20 Energy Recovery on gravity based water supply lines
Recovering energy at this location have no impact on the flow or pressure` A Plan of a gravity based water network and possible locations of turbines

21 Electro mechanical equipments
a. Electrical Equipment · Generator (Synchronous and Induction) · Control and Protections · Transformers · HT switchgear · LT switchgear b. Mechanical Equipment · Hydraulic Turbine · Governor · Inlet control (valve/ gate) · Speed Increaser (low head application) · Advances in Governor Tech.-complete components.

22 Micro Hydro Quality standard
In view of quick implementation as well as to ensure quality of works “Micro Hydro Quality Standard” was prepared and issued by AHEC, IIT Roorkee India In 2005

Category A (Upto 10 kW) Category B (Above10kW and upto 50 kW) Category C (Above 50 kW and upto 100 kW) Cross Flow Pump as turbine Pelton Turgo Axial Flow Turbine Any other turbine meeting the technical requirement Turgo Impulse Francis Pump as Turbine Synchronous/ Induction - Single Phase/3 phase Synchronous/ Induction 3 Phase Synchronous 240 V, 1 –phase, 50 Hz 415 V 3 phase, 415 V, 3 phase, Standard / Special generators designed to withstand against continuous runaway condition. CATEGORY WISE RECOMMENDATIONRECOMMENDATION

24 Insulation and Temperature Rise
Class F/H insulation and Class B Temperature rise Minimum required Weighted Average Efficiency (T Av) 0.50 x T T50 45% 50% 60% Controller (Preferable/Micro processor based) (ELC) Electronics load controller or IGC Induction Generation Controller (ELC) Electronic Load Controller (preferred) or IGC Induction Generator Controller (ELC) Electronic Load Controller or Flow Control Governor Ballast Load Air heater Water Heater Water heater Inertia and Flywheel Adequate flywheel should be provided for isolated operation. Switchgear / Earth Fault Protection MCB/MCCB for O.C. Protection Provide Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)/Residual current operated circuit breaker Monitoring & Protection Current, voltage, frequency Stator temperature Overcurrent (stator) Maximum & minimum voltage Reverse Power Over/under frequency Bearing temperature Metering As required.

25 Case study of “Ramgad MHP” in District Nainital
Installed Capacity = 100 KW Year of Installation = 1995 No. of Unit = 2x50 KW Net Head = 50 m Design Discharge = 382 LPS No. of operators = 1x3(shifts) Electrician = 1 No. Electrification = 372 Households Local Grid Network = 15 Kms. Operation & Maintained= By Ramgad Urja Samiti having 12 Members from user villages including 30% women members.


27 Ramgad Micro Hydel Project
Total No. of Unit Generated Units consumed by villagers Rs 2 per unit) 100 % of revenue received from Villagers being provided to Village Energy Committee (Tariff as per UPCL Rs per unit) Remaining surplus unit are supplied to grid 25 % of revenue received from UPCL is being provided to VEC 75 % to UREDA against capital Investments Ramgad Micro Hydel Project Consumption of Units Revenue generated

28 The Present Scenario at Ramgarh
As on date, the project system is effectively functional and being successfully managed by the user committee. The success is clearly visible in terms of the followings: 5 Trained Operators are operating the plant regularly. The Plant Load Factor reached up to 80% 100% metering in all the 372 households Tariff as per the UPCL rates. All incandescent bulbs replaced with CFLs. No overloading during peak hour Surplus power generating Rs per unit from the UPCL.

29 Electricity bill collection efficiency increased up to 90%.
Regular meetings of user committee. About M units of surplus electricity has been fed into the grid from January, 2005 for which UREDA has received an amount of Rs M from UPCL. User committee having Rs M as bank balance. Replacement of 1000 traditional bulbs with LED Bulb. Installation of 100 LED Street Light in the beneficiary villages. The project site is being developed as tourist place by local administration with eco-friendly environment and waterfall. The above facts display that Ramgad Small Hydro Project is working as a self sustained small hydro project.

30 Institutional framework
Project Allotment Project Identification SNAs SNAs, Community or Private Developers Clearances and Regulatory Provisions Forest Department Irrigation Department Public works Deptt, Water supply deptt SERC (Tariff Setting) State distribution or transmission utility Grid Connectivity Off Grid Government Support- MNRE (CFA), MoP (DDG), RMDD (NREGA), DST, NEC Credit Availability- NABARD, REC, Rural Banks PPA- Energy and Power Department SNAs, Community, Private Developers, Technology Suppliers , civil contractors, Power Utilities Financial Closure Construction Operation and Maintenance + Capacity Building Community, SNAs, contractors

31 Existing Ownership Model for off-grid rural electrification
Implementing agency Project developer Construction State government State Renewable Energy Development Agencies , or/and Departments promoting renewable energy, or/and State Utilities, or/and The identified CPSUs State agencies, technology suppliers, Corporate houses, Equipment Manufacturers and Contractors, Self Help Groups, Users Associations, Individuals, Registered Societies, Cooperatives, Panchayats, Local bodies, their Consortiums / SPVs / JVs O & M for 5 years (may vary) Capacity building for villagers Supply of power to villagers Collection of tariff from villagers Gap between O &M cost and revenue recovery to be reimbursed by the Implementing Agency out of its service charges

32 Cross linkages with other programmes
Backward linkages Rural electrification policy Central financial Assistance REP scheme Rural Management and Development Department Forward linkages Rural development programmes Use of tail race water for irrigation as required by the village Mini and micro hydro projects will be integrated with irrigation, education, health, drinking water, small-scale industry & ropeways The women’s development, irrigation, drinking water, community saving, health, forests, industries, environmental conservation, road, micro-finance, literacy campaign programmes, which are conducted at the local level will be implemented by integrating with the rural energy development programmes

33 Hybrid Energy Generation- power-on-demand from an energy system sourced by intermittent renewable energy source

34 Typical village load and Hydro during Lean season

35 To Store Deficit

36 To Storage Deficit Deficit To Storage

37 Challenges observed on existing small plants and recommendations
Capacity development is the key to success for scaling up of SHP programme for planning, oversight, and monitoring; training to all project developers, facilitators, financial institutions and community members; adopting the standard equipments and designs Upfront public financing Encouraging higher participation of private sector Clarity in Policies and regulations Setting up and enhancing institutions capacity SHP development efforts are more of ad hoc type (lack of experience sharing, absence of business objectives)

38 for capacity building Areas: Resources Required: Planning
Design Procurement Execution O&M Financing Policy Resources Required: Human resources Laboratory Library Networking for data, experts, suppliers, institutions Finance

39 Alternate Hydro Energy Centre- IIT Roorkee
Exclusive academic center of IIT Roorkee focusing on SHP development and recognized as National Resource Centre for Small Hydropower. Large national database for resource assessment for SHP development and rural electrification created Real time Digital Simulator for shp plants for training and research. Expertise for field testing and performance evaluation of SHP stations e. Prepared the National Standards/ Code of Practices for SHP development. Imparting training and education Systematic state master plans for shp and remote village electrification

40 Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) for Small Hydropower Plant
RTDS at Alternate Hydro Energy Centre IIT Roorkee


R&D hydro turbine Laboratory of International level at AHEC- IIT Roorkee research & development turbine-model testing, human resource development (HRD) generation of design data design validation through CFD analysis First independent facility in the region Head m and discharge 1000 lps Building 15 x 24 m height to – 6.5 m Water storage cubic m Laboratory is expected to be commissioned by June 2015 Sponsor- Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, GoI

43 Thank You


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