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Chapter 16: Twentieth Century Architecture 16.1 Modernism 16.2 Post-Modernism In the twentieth century, heavy structures of wood and stone which were used.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Twentieth Century Architecture 16.1 Modernism 16.2 Post-Modernism In the twentieth century, heavy structures of wood and stone which were used."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16: Twentieth Century Architecture 16.1 Modernism 16.2 Post-Modernism In the twentieth century, heavy structures of wood and stone which were used for building in previous eras were replaced by the modern invention of steel skyscrapers. The new, sleek form of architecture was called Modernism. Modernism completely changed the look of cities. No longer were churches the tallest structures on the horizon; they were now overshadowed by towering secular buildings. The new building materials included steel, reinforced concrete, and huge expanses of glass. The unadorned, graceful style of Modernism imparted a feeling of weightlessness. The 1960s saw a shift in architectural style away from the pure, elegant look of Modernism to a more eclectic design attitude called Post- Modernism. Post-Modernist architects combined design styles, being less concerned with rigid rules dictating taste.

2 Louis Sullivan ( ) Carson Pirie Scott Dept.Store, 1901, Chicago, Illinois Modernism begins with Louis Sullivan, one of the earliest architects to use steel construction. Window detailing and ornamentation was eliminated, except for the area of the front doors. He believed that “form follows function.” This means that practical needs are more important than beauty for its own sake. Sullivan had a good opportunity to put his designs to use in Chicago, which had to be rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1871 destroyed much of the central business district. Most of the buildings which fed the devastating fire had been made of wood.

3 Louis Sullivan ( ) Guaranty Building, 1895, Buffalo, New York, Despite his reputation for austere design, during the peak of his career Sullivan included more ornamentation in his facades, ranging from organic forms like vines and ivy to more geometric patterns. Another visual element he became known for is the massive, semi-circular arch, seen here in the window frames and entrances. This office building in Buffalo, New York was visibly divided into three "zones" of design: a plain, wide- windowed base for the ground-level shops; the main office block, with vertical ribbons of masonry rising unimpeded across nine upper floors to emphasize the building's height; and an ornamented cornice perforated by round windows at the roof level, where the building's mechanical units (like the elevator motors) were housed. The cornice includes Sullivan's trademark Art Nouveau vines; each ground-floor entrance is topped by a semi-circular arch.

4 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ) Lakeshore Drive Apartments, Chicago, Illinois, 1951 Mies van der Rohe moved to Chicago from his native Germany during the Nazi era. His American buildings had a great impact on Modernism. In this structure of two residential units we see very simplified forms with subtle variations; they are designed in such a way as to allow for the maximum amount of light to enter each apartment.

5 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ) Lakeshore Drive Apartments, Chicago, Illinois, 1951 The base of the buildings rests on stilt-like structures which lend a welcoming openess to these otherwise massive structures.

6 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ) Lakeshore Drive Apartments, Chicago, Illinois, 1951 Mies van der Rohe moved to Chicago from his native Germany during the Nazi era. His American buildings had a great impact on Modernism. In this structure of two residential units we see very simplified forms with subtle variations; they are designed in such a way as to allow for the maximum amount of light to enter each apartment.

7 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ) Seagram Building, New York City, 1958 The exterior of this building is made of bronze-finished steel and amber glass. Steel stilts support the building and impart a sense of weightlessness to the solid form of the building above. This building is on Park Ave., between 52nd and 53rd St. This elegant and seemingly simple building may be said to embody Mies van der Rohe’s famous slogan summing up his design philosophy, “Less is more.”

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9 Frank Lloyd Wright ( ) Robie House, 1909, Chicago, Illinois Frank Lloyd Wright was originally a student of Louis Sullivan, but became famous in his own right as the leader of the Prairie School. There is an overall horizontal feeling to the homes he built. His primary concern was to develop a compatible relationship between the structure and its location so that the building would seem to grow out of its environment.

10 Frank Lloyd Wright ( ) Kaufman House, 1936, Bear Run, Pennsylvania This famous house is known as “Falling Water” because it is built over a waterfall.

11 Frank Lloyd Wright ( ) Kaufman House, 1936, Bear Run, Pennsylvania This famous house is known as “Falling Water” because it is built over a waterfall.

12 Frank Lloyd Wright ( ) Kaufman House, 1936, Bear Run, Pennsylvania This famous house is known as “Falling Water” because it is built over a waterfall.

13 Frank Lloyd Wright ( ) Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1959, New York City The floor plan of this famous museum is based on a circular shape; the artwork is displayed on the walls of one huge ramp which rises several stories from ground level.

14 Gerrit Rietveld ( ) Schroder House, 1924, Holland This architect combined the modernist influence of Frank Lloyd Wright and his fellow Dutchman, painter Piet Mondrian.

15 Walter Gropius ( ) Bauhaus, 1928, Germany Gropius headed Germany’s Bauhaus school, of art and architecture, which fostered the International Style. This style was the forerunner of contemporary architecture and our modern mass production building techniques. The use of all organic materials—such as wood or stone— was eliminated, as was all ornamentation. Glass was a favored material, but has since been scaled back in building design when the energy crisis of our times caused a re-evaluation its insulating efficiency.

16 Walter Gropius ( ) Bauhaus, 1928, Germany The use of all organic materials—such as wood or stone— was eliminated, as was all ornamentation. Glass was a favored material, but has since been scaled back in building design when the energy crisis of our times caused a re-evaluation its insulating efficiency.

17 Walter Gropius ( ) Gropius House, 1938, Massachusetts Gropius built this home for his family when he moved to the United States during the German Nazi era. This structure stays true to Bauhaus design principles, using simple, clean lines and mass-produced fittings for steel wall lights, chrome banisters and glass panes.


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