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CIS 310 Management Information Systems Project Management.

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1 CIS 310 Management Information Systems Project Management

2 IBM FAA Stix, Gary 1994. Aging airways. Scientific American, 271(5): 96-105. Need to replace Air Traffic Control System (ATCS) – machinery not-maintainable – increase in traffic – need to support new technologies 1982: 11 year, $12.6 billion redesign of the ATCS 1994: 150 projects, $36 billion by 2001 Today – Still a multi-billion dollar problem, not expected to complete until 2025. (Information Week).

3 LAUSD Payroll LAUSD hired Deloitte to implement an SAP Payroll system. LAUSD has highly complex labor agreements. $95 million expected to grow to $210 million. When the system went live, many teachers were unpaid or paid the wrong amount. Ugly finger pointing on both sides. Took years to fix the problem.

4 US Air Force Logistics Chris Kanaracus, Air Force scraps massive ERP project after racking up $1B in costs, ComputerWorld, 11/14/12.Air Force scraps massive ERP project after racking up $1B in costs “$1.03 billion in costs since 2005, "and has not yielded any significant military capability” “$1.1B for about a quarter of the original scope to continue and fielding would not be until 2020.” Project terminated. "Why did it take the [Air Force] $1 billion and almost 10 years to realize this project is a disaster? What kind of planning process accepts a billion dollars of waste?“ (Krigsman IT Failure Expert)

5 IT Systems Development Projects In General Overrun Late Failures Backlog Dissatisfied Users

6 Standish Group, Chaos Report Standish Group Chaos Report – On schedule on budget is getting better ZDNET – Does Standish have it Wrong? – Executives vs. PMs – Breakdown of Challenged Projects

7 Project Management There are several reasons and intricacies for why projects fail. Great Project Management can help avoid problems. Project Manager Characteristics – Communicator – Organized – Foresight – Leadership – Pragmatic

8 Project Management Certifications Program Management Institute (PMI) Program Management Institute Project Management Professional (PMP) Exam – Exam Based Certification – 4 Year College Degree – 3 years of PM experience – 4,500 hours leading and directing projects and 35 hours of project management education.

9 What Makes IT Projects Successful? Upper management support User involvement Communication Clear, complete requirements Appropriate staffing Manage change Track and communicate progress Manage client expectations

10 Triple Constraint Time Money Scope (Requirements) If any of these things change, the project changes. – An increase in requirements leads to more cost and longer development time. – Less money means you cannot deliver everything you had planned. – Less time probably means less functionality in the final delivery.

11 Project Selection Project Portfolio Typically there are more projects to do than an IT department has the resources for. Select a portfolio of projects that promote organizational objectives. – Cost Benefit Analysis – Potential for Success – Political Support – Efficiency and Effectiveness – Some Risk – Technology – Build Skills

12 Project Management Tools Classics – Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) – Pert chart (Critical Path) – Gantt chart (Milestones) Others – Workflow – Financial Reporting

13 Project Documents Request for Proposal (RFP) Contract Work Breakdown Structure Requirements Specification Design Reviews Test Quality

14 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Build Robot Housekeeper 90,000 hours | $10M Cleaning Subsystem 2000 hours | $?K Electrical Subsystem 1000 hours | $?K Mobility Subsystem 1000 hours | $?K Communication Subsystem 2000 hours | $?K Requirements 4000 hours | $?K Analysis 6000 hours | $?K Programming 60,000 hours | $?K Integration & Test 20,000 hours | $?K 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.2.1 1.2.4

15 Pert Chart Design Review Robot Comm Substystem Integrate with Mobility Subsystem Use Interface Commanding Smart Mobility Commanding State of Health Commanding Cleaning Subsystem Commanding 4/19/2013 Requirements Analysis Programming Test Integration & Test Requirements Analysis Programming Test Requirements Analysis Programming Test Requirements Analysis Programming Test

16 Gannt Chart

17 End Why is everyone so spun up about IT projects? What is the triple constraint? What is an RFP? They cost money and IT has a history of overrun and late projects that clients are unhappy with. Time, Cost, Scope. If any one of these changes, the other two have to change. Request for Proposal. If your company builds systems, it is what you will bid on to get work.

18 CIS 310 Management Information Systems Systems Development

19 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Also…Project Development Life Cycle or Software Development Life Cycle The process you follow to develop your systems. – Problem definition/Planning – Requirements analysis – Design – Code – Test – Maintain

20 SDLC Phases Problem Definition/Planning – will the system improve efficiency, effectiveness? Define the project goals and develop a high level plan to meet them Requirements Analysis – Define in detail the functions and operations of the system. Design – Develop the structure and for how the system will work. This includes user interface design (front-end), data base design (back-end), interface descriptions…how it will work.

21 SDLC Phases (contd.) Development – Code the design. Testing. Test – Test to the requirements. (subsystem, system, integration, load, usability…etc.) Implement – Have the system go live. Maybe change-over from an old system. Maintain – Throughout the system life cycle, make changes that add functionality or improve the system.

22 Traditional Model (Waterfall) Requirements Analysis Design CodeTest Maintain

23 Waterfall Model Strengths Simple to understand with well defined product milestones. Good for well understood, well defined projects with short time horizons. Protection against fickle customers in that specifications are concrete baselines. Requirements traceability

24 Waterfall Model Weaknesses Inflexible. Lengthy time between requirements and working model results in poorly met user needs and failure to leverage current technologies. Low customer satisfaction. High cost.

25 Incremental Development Requirements Design Implement Requirements Design Implement Requirements Design Implement

26 Incremental Development Strengths – Some flexibility on requirements. – Breaks large systems problems into achievable pieces Weaknesses – Requires well defined interfaces – Costly. Many integration cycles. – Tendency to delay difficult problems

27 Prototyping customer requirements working mock-up customer test and feedback clearly defined requirements robust development

28 Prototyping Strengths Early functionality. Good risk control. Solves problem of identifying customer requirements by providing operational mock-up. Higher customer satisfaction. Development is highly focused on end-product.

29 Prototyping Weaknesses Use of prototype as system causes problems. Customers do not understand why they cannot use the system since it is ‘working’. Disappointed with development time. Sometimes results in system with poor performance and documentation. Delay difficult problems. Not highly applicable to maintenance projects.

30 Evolutionary (Spiral) Model 1. Determine objectives, alternatives, constraints 2. Evaluate alternatives, identify, resolve risks 3. Develop, verify next-level product 4. Plan next phases Commit


32 Spiral Pros & Cons Pros Flexible so you have a better chance of meeting the users needs. Risk is well managed. Good for a complex project. Costs get more accurate as the project progresses. Cons Can be expensive and complicated Too complex for a simple project Too much documentation Need experienced project manager

33 Agile/SCRUM Prioritize sprints so the most important features are done first. Functionality at every delivery.

34 Scrum Project Team: Scrum Master, Scrum Team, Product Owner Develop Requirements (User Stories) Prioritize and divide requirements into sprints Deliver a few sprints every 2-3 weeks and change the requirements as you go Sprint reviews with the user Emphasize added functionality after each sprint

35 Scrum Pros & Cons Pro – Early functionality makes customers happy – Small teams are more efficient – Requirements flexibility allows for change Con – Hard to manage something that isn’t well defined – A lot of time is spent in reviews – The requirements change a lot. So time is spent on redesign. – Difficult for a complex project.

36 Summary Waterfall Incremental Development Prototyping Spiral Development Agile/Scrum

37 End If your project is well understood and highly structured, what methodology might work for you? If you are expecting requirements to change and evolve as the project grows, what type of methodology should you use? What ultimately happens if you blow it on the requirements in the beginning of the project? Scrum or maybe rapid prototyping. Waterfall It costs more money to fix towards the end of the life cycle.

38 References Stix, G. 1994. Aging airways. Scientific American, 271(5): 96-105. Hoover, J. 2011, Problems Plague FAA's NextGen Air Traffic Control Upgrade, Information Week.Problems Plague FAA's NextGen Air Traffic Control Upgrade Chris Kanaracus, Air Force scraps massive ERP project after racking up $1B in costs, ComputerWorld, 11/14/12.Air Force scraps massive ERP project after racking up $1B in costs

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