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The Sentence and Its Parts Mr. Bush Chapter 1. Complete Subjects and Predicates Here’s the Idea – In order to share ideas and information successfully,

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Presentation on theme: "The Sentence and Its Parts Mr. Bush Chapter 1. Complete Subjects and Predicates Here’s the Idea – In order to share ideas and information successfully,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sentence and Its Parts Mr. Bush Chapter 1

2 Complete Subjects and Predicates Here’s the Idea – In order to share ideas and information successfully, you need to use complete sentences. – A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. – Every complete sentence has two basic parts: a subject and a predicate.

3 Complete Subjects and Predicates Every sentence has two basic parts: a subject and a predicate. 1.The complete subject includes all the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about. Some architects bring nature indoors. 2. The complete predicate includes the verb and all the words that complete the verb’s meaning. Some architects bring nature indoors.

4 Finding Complete Subjects and Predicates Ex. Some architects bring nature indoors. 1.To find the complete subject, as who or what does something (or is something). Who bring nature indoors? Some architects 2. To find the complete predicate, ask what the subject does (or is). What do some architects do? bring nature indoors.

5 Practice and Apply 1.Frank Lloyd Wright designed an unusual home in Pennsylvania woods. 2.The owners called the house Fallingwater. 3.Sections of the house jut over a waterfall. 4.Its stone walls blend in with the natural surroundings. 5.More than 130,000 people visit the site each year.

6 Practice and Apply 6. Tourists can see a very different house near Spring Green, Wisconsin. 7. The architect Alex Jordan built House on the Rock on a column of sandstone. 8. Its many rooms contain unique furnishing. 9. An automated band plays music all day for the tourists. 10. This odd house attracts half an million visitors a year.

7 Check your answers 1.Frank Lloyd Wright designed and unusual home in Pennsylvania woods. 2.The owners called the house Fallingwater. 3.Sections of the house jut over a waterfall. 4.Its stone walls blend in with the natural surroundings. 5.More than 130,000 people visit the site each year.

8 Check your answers 6. Tourists can see a very different house near Spring Green, Wisconsin. 7. The architect Alex Jordan built House on the Rock on a column of sandstone. 8. Its many rooms contain unique furnishing. 9. An automated band plays music all day for the tourists. 10. This odd house attracts half an million visitors a year.

9 Simple Subjects

10 Underline the complete subject once, complete predicate twice and the simple subject three times. Ex. The cozy shelter hides her newborn pup.

11 Simple Subject

12 Practice and Apply Write the simple subject of each sentence. Remember, descriptive words are not part of the simple subject. 1.Many animals need shelter from cold and predators. 2.Lodges on islands often give beavers the best protection. 3.These homes are built up from the bottom of the pond. 4.Strong saplings are anchored into the mud. 5.The sturdy rodents then pile debris into a mound.

13 Practice and Apply 6.Branches buried in the mud are food for the winter. 7.The whole family lives together in the snug burrow. 8.Their warm bodies keep the temperature comfortable. 9.Predators can claw at the frozen lodge. 10.The crafty beavers stay safe and warm inside.

14 Check your answers 1.Many animals need shelter from cold and predators. 2.Lodges on islands often give beavers the best protection. 3.These homes are built up from the bottom of the pond. 4.Strong saplings are anchored into the mud. 5.The sturdy rodents then pile debris into a mound.

15 Check your answers 6.Branches buried in the mud are food for the winter. 7.The whole family lives together in the snug burrow. 8.Their warm bodies keep the temperature comfortable. 9.Predators can claw at the frozen lodge. 10.The crafty beavers stay safe and warm inside.

16 Simple Predicates, or Verbs

17 A verb is a word used to express an action, a condition, or state or being. A linking verb tells what the subject is. An action verb tells what the subject does, even when the action cannot be seen. Pioneers made sod bricks. (action you can see) They wanted a sturdy home. (action you can’t see) Sod houses stayed cool in hot weather. (linking)

18 Practice and Apply Write the simple predicate, or verb, in each sentence. 1.My great-grandparents lived in a sod house, or “soddy,” on the Kansas prairie. 2.They traveled west from their home in Tennessee. 3.Then men used nearly an acre of sod for the house. 4.The home had only two windows and one door. 5.My family built their soddy in the side of a hill.

19 Practice and Apply 6.Sometimes the cows ate the grass on the roof. 7.Once, a cow fell through the roof into the house! 8.Heavy rains at times soaked through the sod. 9.The dirt floor tuned into a giant mud puddle. 10. Still, sod houses protected my family from harsh winters.

20 Check your answers 1.My great-grandparents lived in a sod house, or “soddy,” on the Kansas prairie. 2.They traveled west from their home in Tennessee. 3.Then men used nearly an acre of sod for the house. 4.The home had only two windows and one door. 5.My family built their soddy in the side of a hill.

21 Check your answers 6.Sometimes the cows ate the grass on the roof. 7.Once, a cow fell through the roof into the house! 8.Heavy rains at times soaked through the sod. 9.The dirt floor tuned into a giant mud puddle. 10. Still, sod houses protected my family from harsh winters.

22 Verb Phrases

23 Verb Phrase A main verb can stand by itself as the simple predicate of a sentence. Ex: Computer networks run smart houses. (action and main verb) The network is the brain of the house. (linking and main verb)

24 Verb Phrase

25 Forms of beis, am, are, was, were, be, been Forms of dodo, does, did Forms of havehas, have, did Othersmay, might, can, should, could, would, shall, will

26 Practice and Apply Write the verb phrase in each sentence below. Include all helping verbs. 1.The first “smart house” was developed in the early 1980’s. 2.Its appliances could communicate with each other. 3.Suppose you were running the vacuum cleaner. 4.The noise might keep you from hearing the phone. 5.In that situation the house would stop the vacuum cleaner automatically.

27 Practice and Apply 6.Those with disabilities may benefit the most from a smart house. 7.The house will perform some of the tasks beyond their capability. 8.For example, meals could be brought to a person’s bed. 9.The food will have been prepared by a smart kitchen 10. Surely you can imagine other uses for a smart house.

28 Check your answers 1.The first “smart house” was developed in the early 1980’s. 2.Its appliances could communicate with each other. 3.Suppose you were running the vacuum cleaner. 4.The noise might keep you from hearing the phone. 5.In that situation the house would stop the vacuum cleaner automatically.

29 Check your answers 6.Those with disabilities may benefit the most from a smart house. 7.The house will perform some of the tasks beyond their capability. 8.For example, meals could be brought to a person’s bed. 9.The food will have been prepared by a smart kitchen 10. Surely you can imagine other uses for a smart house.

30 Compound Sentence Parts

31

32

33 Practice and Apply Write the compound subject or the compound verb in each sentence. 1.Space stations and orbiting platforms are our first step away from Earth. 2.In the future, we may design and build outer- space cities. 3.Several nations or international groups could pool their resources. 4.They could create and manage a colony on the moon. 5.Minerals and other raw materials would be shipped to colonies in space.

34 Practice and Apply 6.We already design and plan model cities. 7.In one design, two huge cylinders and their solar panels form the main body of space city. 8.The cylinders rotate and create an artificial gravity. 9.Special greenhouses shelter and sustain the city’s food. 10.These cities or other space colonies could bring us closer to the stars!

35 Check your answers 1.Space stations and orbiting platforms are our first step away from Earth. 2.In the future, we may design and build outer- space cities. 3.Several nations or international groups could pool their resources. 4.They could create and manage a colony on the moon. 5.Minerals and other raw materials would be shipped to colonies in space.

36 Check your answers 6.We already design and plan model cities. 7.In one design, two huge cylinders and their solar panels form the main body of space city. 8.The cylinders rotate and create an artificial gravity. 9.Special greenhouses shelter and sustain the city’s food. 10.These cities or other space colonies could bring us closer to the stars!

37 Kinds of Sentences A sentence can be used to make a statement, to ask a question, to make a request or give a command, or to show strong feelings.

38 Kinds of sentences What it DoesExamples Declarative Makes a statement; always ends with a period. I see something weird in that tree. It looks like a gray basketball. Interrogative Asks a question; always ends with a question mark. What do you think it is? Is it a hornet’s nest? Imperative Tells or asks someone to do something; usually ends with a period but may end with an exclamation point. Please don’t get too close to it. Be careful! Exclamatory Shows strong feeling; always ends with an exclamation point. I see hornets flying out! I’m getting out of here!

39 Practice and Apply Identify each of the following sentences as declarative (D), interrogative (INT), exclamatory (E), or imperative (IMP). 1.Did you know that some wasps build round, gray nests that can be as big as beach balls? 2.The nests are made from cellulose and are very strong. 3.Stay away from wasps. 4.Their string is very painful! 5.Yellow jackets are really yellow and black.

40 Practice and Apply 6.Do they eat many insect pests? 7.They live in colonies and build papery nests in spaces underground or in walls and attics. 8.Did you know that their nests may have from 300 to more than 100,000 cells? 9.Yellow jackets are dangerous only if you get too close to their nest. 10. Don’t ever try to move a nest yourself.

41 Check your answers 1.Did you know that some wasps build round, gray nests that can be as big as beach balls? INT 2.The nests are made from cellulose and are very strong. D 3.Stay away from wasps. IMP 4.Their string is very painful! E 5.Yellow jackets are really yellow and black. D

42 Check your answers 6.Do they eat many insect pests? INT 7.They live in colonies and build papery nests in spaces underground or in walls and attics. D 8.Did you know that their nests may have from 300 to more than 100,000 cells? INT 9.Yellow jackets are dangerous only if you get too close to their nest. D 10. Don’t ever try to move a nest yourself. IMP

43 Subjects in Unusual Order In most declarative sentences, subjects come before verbs. In some kinds of sentences, however, subjects can come between verb parts, follow verbs, or not appear at all.

44 Subjects in Unusual Order

45 To find the subject, turn the question into a statement. Then ask who or what is or does something. Ex. Are you staying home? Change the sentence into, ‘You are staying home.’ Then ask yourself, “Who is staying?” you ‘You’ is the subject of the sentence.

46 Subjects in Unusual Order

47 Sentences Beginning with Here or There In some sentences beginning with here or there, subjects follow verbs. To find the subject in such a sentence, look for the verb and ask the question who or what. Find the subject by looking at the words that follow the verb.

48 Subjects in Unusual Order

49 Practice and Apply Underline the subject once and the verb or verb phrase twice in these sentences. 1.There are some benefits to games at the home stadium. 2.In the bleachers sit all your fans. 3.There are fewer hostile fans from the other team. 4.Is travel time shorter to and from the game? 5.On the field can be seen special landscaping.

50 Practice and Apply 6.Will the umpires give the home team a break? 7.Does the team usually play better on its own field? 8.Look at the team’s record for the season. 9.There are more wins at home. 10. Plan more home games for next year.

51 Check your answers 1.There are some benefits to games at the home stadium. 2.In the bleachers sit all your fans. 3.There are fewer hostile fans from the other team. 4.Is travel time shorter to and from the game? 5.On the field can be seen special landscaping.

52 Check your answers 6.Will the umpires give the home team a break? 7.Does the team usually play better on its own field? 8.Look at the team’s record for the season. You 9.There are more wins at home. 10. Plan more home games for next year. You

53 Subject Complements A complement is a word or a group of words that completes the meaning of a verb. Two kinds of complements are subject complements and objects of verbs. A subject complement is a word or group of words that follows a linking verb and renames or describes the subject. A linking verb links the subject with a noun or an adjective that tells more about it.

54 Subject Complements Ex. Butterflies are fragile. ‘Butterflies’ is our subject ‘are’ is our linking verb ‘fragile’ is our complement- ‘fragile’ is describing ‘Butterflies’ Common Linking Verbs: am, is, are, was, were, be, been appear, become, feel, look, sound, seem, taste

55 Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives A predicate noun follows a linking verb and defines or renames the subject. Monarch butterflies are insects. ‘butterflies’ is our subject ‘are’ is our linking verb ‘insects’ is our predicate noun that defines ‘butterflies’

56 Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives Ex. Cocoons become butterfly nurseries. ‘Cocoons’ is our subject ‘become’ is our linking verb ‘nurseries’ is our predicate noun that renames ‘cocoons’

57 Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and describes a quality of the subject. Ex. Monarchs look beautiful. ‘Monarchs’ is our subject ‘look’ is our linking verb ‘beautiful’ is our predicate adjective

58 Practice and Apply Write the underlined word in each sentence, and identify it as a predicate noun (PN) or a predicate adjective (PA). 1.Migration routes are highways in the sky for birds. 2.The migration of songbirds is difficult to track. 3.The birds are too little to carry radio transmitters. 4.Identification bands can be useful in tracking migration. 5.The bands often become loose, however.

59 Practice and Apply 6. Fortunately, the isotope deuterium has been helpful. 7. Deuterium is a form of hydrogen found in rainwater. 8. Deuterium becomes part of plants, insects, and birds. 9. Deuterium levels become higher as you go farther south. 10. Now scientists feel hopeful about tracking migrations.

60 Check Your Answers 1.Migration routes are highways in the sky for birds. PN 2.The migration of songbirds is difficult to track. PA 3.The birds are too little to carry radio transmitters. PA 4.Identification bands can be useful in tracking migration. PA 5.The bands often become loose, however. PA

61 Check Your Answers 6. Fortunately, the isotope deuterium has been helpful. PA 7. Deuterium is a form of hydrogen found in rainwater. PN 8. Deuterium becomes part of plants, insects, and birds. PN 9. Deuterium levels become higher as you go farther south. PA 10. Now scientists feel hopeful about tracking migrations. PA

62 Objects of Verbs In addition to subject complements, There are objects of verbs. Action verbs often need complements called direct objects and indirect object to complete their meaning.

63 Objects of Verbs Direct Objects A direct object is a word or group of words that names the receiver of the action of an action verb. A direct object answers the question what or whom. Movie producers often borrow real homes. ‘borrow’ is our verb ‘homes’ is our direct object.

64 Objects of Verbs Example: The right house can charm viewers. 1. Find your verb: 2. Ask ‘who or what’ + verb= direct object

65 Objects of Verbs Indirect Objects An indirect object is a word or group of words that tells to whom or what (or for whom or what) an action is performed. An indirect object comes between a verb and a direct object.

66 Object of Verbs Example We lent the producer our house. ‘lent’ is our verb ‘house’ is our direct object ‘producer’ is our indirect object

67 Object of Verbs We lent the producer our house. 1. What is the verb? 2. To find the direct object, ask, (verb) what? 3. To find the indirect object, ask, (verb) to or for whom?

68 Objects of Verbs Example The producer paid us rent money.

69 Practice and Apply Write the objects in these sentences, identifying each as a direct object (DO) or an indirect object (IO). 1.Bill Gates owns a very technologically advanced house. 2.The house gives its inhabitants a high level of comfort and convenience. 3.Each visitor to the house carries an electronic identifier. 4.The device gives the house information. 5.The house can then grant the visitor’s wishes.

70 Practice and Apply 6. Such a house can teach researchers many things about homes for people with disabilities. 7. For example, the house can bring you music in every room. 8. A similar house could provide aids for the visually challenged. 9. Voice instructions could give a visually challenged person information about running appliances. 10. Gates’s house also has a 32-screen video wall.

71 Check Your Answers 1.Bill Gates owns a very technologically advanced house. DO 2.The house gives its inhabitants a high level of comfort and convenience. IO/DO 3.Each visitor to the house carries an electronic identifier. DO 4.The device gives the house information. IO/DO 5.The house can then grant the visitor’s wishes. DO

72 Check Your Answers 6. Such a house can teach researchers many things about homes for people with disabilities. IO/DO 7. For example, the house can bring you music in every room. IO/DO 8. A similar house could provide aids for the visually challenged. DO 9. Voice instructions could give a visually challenged person information about running appliances. IO/DO 10. Gates’s house also has a 32-screen video wall. DO


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