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Approaches to Systems Development Chapter 8. Outline  Introduction Systems Analyst  Ch 8 - Approaches to System Development SDLC − Phases & Core Processes.

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Presentation on theme: "Approaches to Systems Development Chapter 8. Outline  Introduction Systems Analyst  Ch 8 - Approaches to System Development SDLC − Phases & Core Processes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Approaches to Systems Development Chapter 8

2 Outline  Introduction Systems Analyst  Ch 8 - Approaches to System Development SDLC − Phases & Core Processes − Approaches: Predictive & Adaptive Methodology Software Construction & Modeling Approaches − Structured A&D − Object-oriented Agile Development 2

3 Systems Analyst  Organizational role most responsible for analysis and design of information systems. Translates a _________ __________ into an ___________ ___________ ___________. Job Titles − vary by organization; read the job description Systems Analyst Business Analyst (client-facing) 3

4 Systems Analyst 4 …more of a business problem solver than a technical programmer Knowledge & Skills T ECHNICAL DB, Programming, Computers Hardware, Networking, Operating systems, and utilities, Communication & collaboration technology SDLC techniques B USINESS Organizational knowledge Management techniques Functional work processes P EOPLE Communication skills Interpersonal Skills Roles: Negotiator, Teacher, Mentor, Collaborator, Manager

5 Systems Development Project Is a planned undertaking Has fixed beginning and end Produces desired result or product Varies in size 5

6 SDLC: S YSTEMS D EVELOPMENT L IFE C YCLE  Provides overall framework for managing systems development process All projects use some variation of SDLC 6 Phase Project Initiation Planning Analysis Design Implementation Deployment Ch 9 Ch 2-5 Ch 7,10-12 Ch 13 Core Process 1. Identify the problem/need & obtain approval 2. Plan & monitor the project 3. Discover & understand the details 4. Design the system components 5. Build, test, and integrate system components 6. Complete system tests and deploy solution

7 2 Approaches to the SDLC 7 Waterfall Model Modified Waterfall Spiral Model Incremental Development Assumptions can be planned in advance system can be developed according to the plan Assumptions Iterative Must be flexible & adapt Predictive SDLC Adaptive SDLC

8 Predictive Approaches 8 Waterfall  One phase begins when another completes; Specifications are frozen Problems  System requirements “locked in”  Limited user involvement  Too much focus on milestone deadlines Support Deploymen t Planning Analysis Design Implementati on Project Initiation Support Deployment Planning Analysis Design Implementation Project Initiation Modified Waterfall  Overlapping phases  Can go backwards

9 Adaptive Approaches: Spiral Model  An iterative approach  Spiral until project completion Then, deployed!  Project Management: managed differently than a waterfall approach 9

10 Adaptive Approaches: Incremental Development  Also, an iterative approach BUT… − System is built in small increments; it is "grown" As an iteration is completed it is integrated to the whole Partially deployed in steps Advantage − some functionality gets into the user's hands much earlier 10

11 Methodology  A comprehensive guideline to follow for completing every SDLC activity Abstraction used to separate out aspect Software to create models or other project components Guidelines or instructions Methodology Models Techniques Tools 11

12 2 Approaches to Software Construction & Modeling  Structured Approach analysis, design & programming  Object-oriented Approach analysis, design & programming 12

13 Structured Analysis Structured Analysis Structured Design Structured Design Structured Programming Structured Programming Software Construction & Modeling: Structured Approach Determines set of programs Purpose of each Organization of programs Main principles: Loosely coupled Highly cohesive Each program has one beginning & one ending Uses 3 constructs: o Sequence o Decision o Repetition Improvements: o program quality o easier to maintain Define processing requirements Define data requirements Define inputs and outputs Define how functions work together to accomplish tasks

14 Software Construction & Modeling: Object-Oriented Approach Views information system as a collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks OOA, OOD, OOP OO languages − C++, Java, C# Benefits − Reuse!

15 Agile Development  A guiding philosophy and set of guidelines for : developing information systems in an unknown rapidly changing environment Complements Adaptive SDLCs & Methodologies − makes sure developers are fast to respond to changes “Manifesto for Agile Development”  − Value responding to change over following a plan − Value individuals and interactions over processes and tools − Value working software over comprehensive documentation − Value customer collaboration over contract negotiation

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