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PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Acquiring Information Systems MIS 320 Kraig Pencil Summer 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Acquiring Information Systems MIS 320 Kraig Pencil Summer 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Acquiring Information Systems MIS 320 Kraig Pencil Summer 2013

2 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Game Plan IS Acquisition Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Modify the SDLC? Supplemental Method: Prototyping Alternative Method: RUP

3 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil A. How May an IS be Acquired? For example: acquiring software applications “Buy” existing application Purchase: Off the shelfLease Service (a.k.a. “SaaS or “Cloud”) Open Source: customize “Build” new application In-houseOutsource

4 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil A. How May an IS be Acquired? Acquisition approach depends on … Degree to which the needed IS application matches an existing package available for purchase Costs/time associated with customizing/generating IS Size of business – small businesses may not be able to afford to build customized systems Potential impact of IS Will costs to customize/generate be worthwhile? Is the system “mission critical”?

5 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil A. How May an IS be Acquired? Some BUY Options Some Commonly Purchased /Leased Packages – and productivity packages: Microsoft Office and Outlook Google Apps –Accounting –CRM (Customer Relationship Management) –ERP systems The “Cloud” option –Systems provided (“subscribed to”) over the Internet SalesForce.com  world’s 4 th fastest growing company (Fortune Magzine)

6 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Development Methods Some BUILD Options Cowboy Coding Waterfall method: Systems Development Life Cycle Iterative methods: Prototyping, Rapid Application Development, XP

7 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil B. Systems Development Lifecycle 1.Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) A series of development stages “Waterfall” type of model Complete one stage and then move onto the next stage Development process flows “downstream” One example of a SDLC … See figure on next slide

8 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Systems Development Life Cycle (Note: Eight-phase model of textbook has been condensed to a five-phase model) Systems Investigation Analysis Design Programming & Testing & Implementation Operation & Maintenance What should the system do ? How to build the system ? Build the system ! Business & Interpersonal Skills Technical Skills Project Management Skills

9 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil B. Systems Development Lifecycle (cont.) 2.How much computer programming is done by the end of the Analysis phase? –Why? 3.What does a “systems analyst” (or “business analyst”) do? – Understand what a proposed IS is supposed to do  IS solution Top image source:

10 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Some Roles in IS Acquisition Expert User Client (manager) Business Analyst Project Manager Executive Sponsor Steering Committee Programmer/Coder IT manager (CIO, director, supervisor) Designer (application/database/network, etc.) Quality Assurance Analyst … and so on

11 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Showcase: The Business Analyst Someone in the IT department whose job is … … talking with managers about their business needs (problems), … organizing teams of IT specialists and business experts … developing project plans and budget estimates … leading* the selection (purchase) or development of systems that satisfy managers’ IT needs/problems *continued monitoring, communicating, guiding, cheerleading …

12 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil C. Modify the SDLC ? 1. A key assumption underlying the traditional SDLC The specific answers to the “What should the system do?” question can be established by the end of Analysis stage 2. Is this an appropriate assumption for all types of systems? Consider two types of IS: TPS: Performs routine, repetitive tasks DSS: Supports non-routine decisions, Un/Semi-structured decisions Users are uncertain of system requirements 3. What are the implications for IS development?  A modified development approach that involves iterations can be useful

13 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil C. Modify the SDLC ? 4. Need to help developers – and users – to better understand system requirements for DSS applications  Incorporate “prototyping” and/or iterations into development process

14 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Prototyping

15 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil D. Supplemental Method: Prototyping 1. Prototyping Develop a “working model” of a system MS Excel and MS Access can be used for prototyping … and final system development Let users work with prototype  Get feedback Advantages Discover /clarify the users’ “system requirements” Flexible development approach Active user involvement Test system interface Can use a small prototype as the “proof of concept” for a large final system

16 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil Preliminary Analysis: Understand the basic user requirements to help develop the initial prototype After the Preliminary Analysis, the developer creates a system for initial review by user(s). User(s) test system and provide feedback. Based on feedback, system will be revised and tested again Eventually the prototype gets a “thumbs up”. Some prototypes are “throwaways” and others are “evolutionary prototypes” Prototyping Figure from Haag, et al (2004)

17 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil D. Supplemental Method: Prototyping 2. Types of prototypes Throwaway prototype Used for demo purposes … “quick and dirty” prototype Can help determine requirements more quickly Construct final system after the throwaway(s) Can use an easier technology (e.g. Access) as “proof of concept” for a more complex technology (e.g. Oracle database) Evolutionary prototype Prototype is continually refined until final system is built Advantages for DSS –Don’t need to discard the prototype –May speed up development process –Flexible Disadvantage: may never be “complete”

18 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil E. Example of an Alternative Method to SDLC: “Rational Unified Process” Image source: UnifiedProcess.png UnifiedProcess.png Iterations Within Phases


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