3VocabularyCordillera, is a mountain system made up of roughly parallel rangesTepuis, is an unusual flat-topped formationGurrillas, or members of an irregular military forceLlaneros, or Venezuelan cowboysStrike, a group of workers stopping until their demands are metReferendum, or recall vote
5Further Research Orinoco River Angel Falls World’s largest waterfall Flows for 1,700 milesFlows through Venezuela and between Venezuela and ColombiaHydro-electric plants are built on the riverComputers help direct electricity to steel mills and aluminum plants and distinct citiesHome to IndiansHome to the world’s largest rodentWorld’s largest waterfallIs named after Jimmy Angel who was a pilot and saw the waterfall for the first time in 1933Drops more than 3,200 feetSince the height is so high the water turns into fog before it hits the bottom
6Physical Features and Wildlife Mountains and HighlandsPlains, Rivers, and WildlifeHighest point in ColombiaThe Andes reach 8,000 ft and form a cordilleraVenezuela’s highest point is the Guiana Highlands, resists erosionThe tepuis rises about 6,000 ft, about the plains.Llanos, grassland without many treesOrinoco flows about 1,600 milesCaucat and Magalena are two other important riversLots of wildlife; 100’s of bird species, piranhas, and crocodilesOne of world’s highest concentrations of plants and animal speciesJagurs, ocelots, and species of monhies
7Climate and Vegetation Most of the region has warm temperatures year-round because it’s near the equatorTemperature varies with elevationThe Llanos region has a tropical savanna climate.Rainforests thrive in southern ColombiaSouthern Colombia is part of the Amazon Basin. Here rain falls throughout the year.
8ResourcesCaribbean South America is a rich agricultural region because of its soil and moderate climates.Major crops- rice, coffee, bananas, and sugarcane.Resources- oil, iron ore, and coal.Forests throughout the region provide timber.The seas provide fish and shrimp.The region’s major rivers are used to generate hydroelectric power.Venezuela’s Canaima National Park covers about 3 million acres of eastern Venezuela.One of the world’s largest national parks.Angel falls is the world’s highest waterfalls (drops 3,200ft.).
9Assessment Questions1a) Where are the Andes located?1b) How are the rock formations called tepuis unusual?The Andes are located on the west side of Colombia.The tepuis are unusual because they are sandstone layers that have resisted erosion; thus making the landscape unusual and different.
101c) Why do the Llanos in Columbia and Venezuela flood easily? 2a) In the Andes, how does the temperature change with elevation?The Llanos in Colombia and Venezuela flood easily because they are mostly grassland and have a low elevation.The temperature in the Andes changes with elevation. The higher you go the colder it gets. The snow-capped peaks are also active volcanos.
11Venezuela and Colombia both have large oil-rich areas. 2b) How does the region’s location near the equator affect it’s climate?3a) What is the major resource in both Venezuela and Columbia?Being closer to the equator would make the temperature warm all year long and not really have seasons.Venezuela and Colombia both have large oil-rich areas.
12The areas major rivers provide them with hydroelectric power. 3b) Which resource provides hydroelectric power?The areas major rivers provide them with hydroelectric power.
14Further ResearchGiants mounds of Earth, mysterious statues, and tombs are the marks of ancient peopleImportant cities areCaliBogotaMedellinBarranquilla
15Graphic Organizer Government Holidays Having trouble with guerilla rebelsEnforcing laws against themNew YearsEpiphaniSt. Josephs DayEasterLabor DayAscension of JesusCorpus ChristDeclaration of Independence
16Current EventsSports14 rebels killed in military raidColombia president deploys 50,000 troops after protest9 die in bomb blastMain sport is soccerTejo, a Colombian original sport
18Colombia’s History The Chibcha Spanish Conquest The Chibcha were metal workers, potters, and weavers.Chibcha made the legend of El DoradoThe Chibcha made the drug called CocaineIn the 1500s the Spanish arrived in South AmericaThe Spanish conquered the Chibcha and found treasureSpain founded colonies in the Caribbean CoastCarta Gena was a major naval base and commercial portSpanish set up large estates in ColombiaSouth Americans and Africans worked there
19Independence In the 1700s people began struggling for independence After they claimed independence, they formed the Gran ColumbiaThe Republic of Gran Colombia included Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela.In the republic dissolvedAfter the republic resolved, New Granada formedThey debated if the Roman Catholic Church should participate in government and educationOutbreaks of violence occurred throughout the 1800s and 1900s killed thousands
20Colombia Today Colombia Today Bogota is Colombia’s capitol People and CultureBogota is Colombia’s capitolMore than 40 years of civil war have been destructive to it’s economyMost Colombians live in fertile valleys and river basins among the mountain rangesThe geography of Colombia isolates people
21Economy Civil War Major exports include bananas, sugarcane, and cotton Many farms produce flourColumbia’s major export is oilMore exports are iron ore, gold, and coalMost emeralds come from ColumbiaGuerrillas forced farmers off their landThousands flee the country because of the warGuerrillas use the coca plant to make cocaineThe United States provides assistance to ColumbiaColumbia is the recipients of US aidThe fighting has lasted 40 yearsColumbia is the number one country in the world to produce and traffic cocaine
22Assessment Questions1a) Who were the Chibcha?1b) Why did Spain want land in Colombia?The Chibcha were a Native American tribe before the Spanish killed them.The Spanish wanted land in Colombia because they wanted to expand their new empire.
232a) What factors make Colombia ideal for growing coffee? 2b) In what part of the country do most Colombians live?Factors that make Colombia good for growing coffee are it’s rich soils, steep slopes, and tall shade trees.Most Colombians live in the fertile valleys and river basins at the ridges of mountains. The climate is moderate which is good for farming.
242c) How might Colombia solve the problem of guerrillas trying to control the country? They could continue to make more laws against them, or start arresting them. The U.S. could help out some more.
25Venezuela and the Guianas Section 3Venezuela and the Guianas
26Further ResearchFiesta De Las Cruces – Honors the Holy Cross of May in the states of Mirands and Aragua as it’s patriotsFederation Day – Marks the start of the 4 year long federal warCurrent president: Nicolas MaduroFederal RepublicPresidential systemFederation and socialist stateExports are:PetroleumSteelAgricultural productsSports are soccer and baseballVenezuela won 7th Miss Universe contestNew national holiday celebrating Hugo ChavesCaracas is the capitolMaracaibo is the largest populated cityOther key cities areValenciaBarquisimeto
27Venezuela People and Culture Spanish Settlement and Colonial Rules Conquered by Spanish in early 1500’sForced Indians to work hard; many diedSpanish brought Africans to the Indians placesVenezuela people descended from Native Indians, Europeans, and AfricansIndians make up 2% of populationMost people are Spanish speaking Roman Catholics
28Independence and Self Rule Economy and Natural Resources Bolivar helped win Venezuela’s independence from Spain in 1821Through 1800’s Venezuela suffered from dictatorship and civil warsLeaders kept the county’s oil money for themselves1960 Venezuela began earing huge sums of money from oil productionBig population still lives in povertyEconomy is based on oil production
29GovernmentSuffered years of dictatorship; finally got president in 1959Since then, government has dealt with economic turmoil and political protestsPeople wanted president to resign, he returned
30GuianasThe countries of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are together known as the Guianas.Tropical rain forests cover much of this region.Guyana comes from a South American Indian word that means “land of waters.”About one-third of the country’s population lives in Georgetown.Guyana’s lands are flat, fertile plains along the coast.Immigrants came to work on the sugar plantations.Today, they have small plots of land for small businesses.About 1/3 of the population are decedents from former African slaves.
31Suriname has similar resources and economy of Guyana. They have a diverse population.Population is made up of South Asians, Africans, Chinese, Indonesians, and Creoles.Capitol is Paramaribo, it is half the population.French Guiana is a French territory.It’s population is about 200,000 people.Two-thirds of the population is African.Other types of people are Europeans, Asians, and South American Indians.They depend heavily on imports.
32Assessment Questions Spanish came hoping to find gold and pearls. 1a) What did Spanish settlers hope to find in Venezuela?1b) Who led Venezuela’s revolt against Spain?Spanish came hoping to find gold and pearls.Simon Bolivar led Venezuela’s revolt against Spain.
33They earn huge sums of money through oil production. 2a) What does the landscape of Caracas include?2b) How is oil important to Venezuela’s economy?Caracas consists of modern subway systems, busy expressways, and tall office buildings.They earn huge sums of money through oil production.
34They went on strike because they wanted the president to resign. 2c) Why did some Venezuelans go on strike?3a) What are Guyana’s agricultural lands and products like?They went on strike because they wanted the president to resign.They are located on flat, fertile plains.
353b) How is population of the Guianas different from that of Columbia and Venezuela? Guiana’s population is diverse and Columbia and Venezuela are not diverse