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Chapter 9 Caribbean South America. Map Vocabulary  Cordillera, is a mountain system made up of roughly parallel ranges  Tepuis, is an unusual flat-topped.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Caribbean South America. Map Vocabulary  Cordillera, is a mountain system made up of roughly parallel ranges  Tepuis, is an unusual flat-topped."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Caribbean South America

2 Map

3 Vocabulary  Cordillera, is a mountain system made up of roughly parallel ranges  Tepuis, is an unusual flat-topped formation  Gurrillas, or members of an irregular military force  Llaneros, or Venezuelan cowboys  Strike, a group of workers stopping until their demands are met  Referendum, or recall vote

4 Section 1 Physical Geography

5 Further Research Orinoco River  Flows for 1,700 miles  Flows through Venezuela and between Venezuela and Colombia  Hydro-electric plants are built on the river  Computers help direct electricity to steel mills and aluminum plants and distinct cities  Home to Indians  Home to the world’s largest rodent Angel Falls  World’s largest waterfall  Is named after Jimmy Angel who was a pilot and saw the waterfall for the first time in 1933  Drops more than 3,200 feet  Since the height is so high the water turns into fog before it hits the bottom

6 Physical Features and Wildlife Mountains and Highlands  Highest point in Colombia  The Andes reach 8,000 ft and form a cordillera  Venezuela’s highest point is the Guiana Highlands, resists erosion  The tepuis rises about 6,000 ft, about the plains. Plains, Rivers, and Wildlife  Llanos, grassland without many trees  Orinoco flows about 1,600 miles  Caucat and Magalena are two other important rivers  Lots of wildlife; 100’s of bird species, piranhas, and crocodiles  One of world’s highest concentrations of plants and animal species  Jagurs, ocelots, and species of monhies

7 Climate and Vegetation  Most of the region has warm temperatures year-round because it’s near the equator  Temperature varies with elevation  The Llanos region has a tropical savanna climate.  Rainforests thrive in southern Colombia  Southern Colombia is part of the Amazon Basin. Here rain falls throughout the year.

8 Resources  Caribbean South America is a rich agricultural region because of its soil and moderate climates.  Major crops- rice, coffee, bananas, and sugarcane.  Resources- oil, iron ore, and coal.  Forests throughout the region provide timber.  The seas provide fish and shrimp.  The region’s major rivers are used to generate hydroelectric power.  Venezuela’s Canaima National Park covers about 3 million acres of eastern Venezuela.  One of the world’s largest national parks.  Angel falls is the world’s highest waterfalls (drops 3,200ft.).

9 Assessment Questions 1a) Where are the Andes located?  The Andes are located on the west side of Colombia. 1b) How are the rock formations called tepuis unusual?  The tepuis are unusual because they are sandstone layers that have resisted erosion; thus making the landscape unusual and different.

10 1c) Why do the Llanos in Columbia and Venezuela flood easily?  The Llanos in Colombia and Venezuela flood easily because they are mostly grassland and have a low elevation. 2a) In the Andes, how does the temperature change with elevation?  The temperature in the Andes changes with elevation. The higher you go the colder it gets. The snow-capped peaks are also active volcanos.

11 2b) How does the region’s location near the equator affect it’s climate?  Being closer to the equator would make the temperature warm all year long and not really have seasons. 3a) What is the major resource in both Venezuela and Columbia?  Venezuela and Colombia both have large oil-rich areas.

12 3b) Which resource provides hydroelectric power?  The areas major rivers provide them with hydroelectric power.

13 Section 2 Colombia

14 Further Research  Giants mounds of Earth, mysterious statues, and tombs are the marks of ancient people  Important cities are  Cali  Bogota  Medellin  Barranquilla

15 Graphic Organizer Government  Having trouble with guerilla rebels  Enforcing laws against them Holidays  New Years  Epiphani  St. Josephs Day  Easter  Labor Day  Ascension of Jesus  Corpus Christ  Declaration of Independence

16 Current Events  14 rebels killed in military raid  Colombia president deploys 50,000 troops after protest  9 die in bomb blast Sports  Main sport is soccer  Tejo, a Colombian original sport

17 Resources  Gold  Coffee  Bananas  Cotton  Sugarcane

18 Colombia’s History The Chibcha  The Chibcha were metal workers, potters, and weavers.  Chibcha made the legend of El Dorado  The Chibcha made the drug called Cocaine Spanish Conquest  In the 1500s the Spanish arrived in South America  The Spanish conquered the Chibcha and found treasure  Spain founded colonies in the Caribbean Coast  Carta Gena was a major naval base and commercial port  Spanish set up large estates in Colombia  South Americans and Africans worked there

19 Independence  In the 1700s people began struggling for independence  After they claimed independence, they formed the Gran Columbia  The Republic of Gran Colombia included Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela.  In 1830 the republic dissolved  After the republic resolved, New Granada formed  They debated if the Roman Catholic Church should participate in government and education  Outbreaks of violence occurred throughout the 1800s and 1900s killed thousands

20 Colombia Today  Bogota is Colombia’s capitol  More than 40 years of civil war have been destructive to it’s economy People and Culture  Most Colombians live in fertile valleys and river basins among the mountain ranges  The geography of Colombia isolates people

21 Economy  Major exports include bananas, sugarcane, and cotton  Many farms produce flour  Columbia’s major export is oil  More exports are iron ore, gold, and coal  Most emeralds come from Columbia Civil War  Guerrillas forced farmers off their land  Thousands flee the country because of the war  Guerrillas use the coca plant to make cocaine  The United States provides assistance to Columbia  Columbia is the recipients of US aid  The fighting has lasted 40 years  Columbia is the number one country in the world to produce and traffic cocaine

22 Assessment Questions 1a) Who were the Chibcha?  The Chibcha were a Native American tribe before the Spanish killed them. 1b) Why did Spain want land in Colombia?  The Spanish wanted land in Colombia because they wanted to expand their new empire.

23 2a) What factors make Colombia ideal for growing coffee?  Factors that make Colombia good for growing coffee are it’s rich soils, steep slopes, and tall shade trees. 2b) In what part of the country do most Colombians live?  Most Colombians live in the fertile valleys and river basins at the ridges of mountains. The climate is moderate which is good for farming.

24 2c) How might Colombia solve the problem of guerrillas trying to control the country?  They could continue to make more laws against them, or start arresting them. The U.S. could help out some more.

25 Section 3 Venezuela and the Guianas

26 Further Research  Fiesta De Las Cruces – Honors the Holy Cross of May in the states of Mirands and Aragua as it’s patriots  Federation Day – Marks the start of the 4 year long federal war  Current president: Nicolas Maduro  Federal Republic  Presidential system  Federation and socialist state  Exports are:  Petroleum  Steel  Agricultural products  Sports are soccer and baseball  Venezuela won 7 th Miss Universe contest  New national holiday celebrating Hugo Chaves  Caracas is the capitol  Maracaibo is the largest populated city  Other key cities are  Valencia  Barquisimeto

27 Venezuela Spanish Settlement and Colonial Rules  Conquered by Spanish in early 1500’s  Forced Indians to work hard; many died  Spanish brought Africans to the Indians places People and Culture  Venezuela people descended from Native Indians, Europeans, and Africans  Indians make up 2% of population  Most people are Spanish speaking Roman Catholics

28 Independence and Self Rule  Bolivar helped win Venezuela’s independence from Spain in 1821  Through 1800’s Venezuela suffered from dictatorship and civil wars  Leaders kept the county’s oil money for themselves Economy and Natural Resources  1960 Venezuela began earing huge sums of money from oil production  Big population still lives in poverty  Economy is based on oil production

29 Government  Suffered years of dictatorship; finally got president in 1959  Since then, government has dealt with economic turmoil and political protests  People wanted president to resign, he returned

30 Guianas  The countries of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are together known as the Guianas.  Tropical rain forests cover much of this region.  Guyana comes from a South American Indian word that means “ land of waters.”  About one-third of the country’s population lives in Georgetown.  Guyana’s lands are flat, fertile plains along the coast.  Immigrants came to work on the sugar plantations.  Today, they have small plots of land for small businesses.  About 1/3 of the population are decedents from former African slaves.

31  Suriname has similar resources and economy of Guyana.  They have a diverse population.  Population is made up of South Asians, Africans, Chinese, Indonesians, and Creoles.  Capitol is Paramaribo, it is half the population.  French Guiana is a French territory.  It’s population is about 200,000 people.  Two-thirds of the population is African.  Other types of people are Europeans, Asians, and South American Indians.  They depend heavily on imports.

32 Assessment Questions 1a) What did Spanish settlers hope to find in Venezuela?  Spanish came hoping to find gold and pearls. 1b) Who led Venezuela’s revolt against Spain?  Simon Bolivar led Venezuela’s revolt against Spain.

33 2a) What does the landscape of Caracas include?  Caracas consists of modern subway systems, busy expressways, and tall office buildings. 2b) How is oil important to Venezuela’s economy?  They earn huge sums of money through oil production.

34 2c) Why did some Venezuelans go on strike?  They went on strike because they wanted the president to resign. 3a) What are Guyana’s agricultural lands and products like?  They are located on flat, fertile plains.

35 3b) How is population of the Guianas different from that of Columbia and Venezuela?  Guiana’s population is diverse and Columbia and Venezuela are not diverse


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