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Describing Methodologies PART I SDLC and Rapid Application Development* Systems Analysis and Design II
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 2 Chapter 1 Learning Objectives Describe the Traditional Methodologies Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Waterfall Model (SDLC Waterfall) Enhanced Waterfall Model Explain Rapid Application Methodologies Prototyping, Joint Application Development (JAD) Rapid Application Development (RAD),
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 3 Chapter 1 Approaches to Systems Analysis and Design
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 4 Chapter 1 A: Traditional Methodologies. 1. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Traditional methodology used to develop, maintain, and replace information systems. Phases in SDLC: Planning Analysis Design Implementation Maintenance
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 5 Chapter 1 Standard and Evolutionary Views of SDLC
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 6 Chapter 1 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) (Cont.) Planning – an organization’s total information system needs are identified, analyzed, prioritized, and arranged. Analysis – system requirements are studied and structured.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 7 Chapter 1 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) (Cont.) Design – a description of the recommended solution is converted into logical and then physical system specifications. Logical design – all functional features of the system chosen for development in analysis are described independently of any computer platform.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 8 Chapter 1 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) (Cont.) Physical design – the logical specifications of the system from logical design are transformed into the technology-specific details from which all programming and system construction can be accomplished.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 9 Chapter 1 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) (Cont.) Implementation – the information system is coded, tested, installed and supported in the organization. Maintenance – an information system is systematically repaired and improved.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 10 Chapter 1
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 11 Chapter 1 2. Traditional Waterfall SDLC The same as previously discussed SDLC Only unique feature is ---- One phase begins when another completes, little backtracking and looping
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 12 Chapter 1 Problems with Waterfall Approach System requirements “locked in” after being determined (can't change). Limited user involvement (only in requirements phase). Too much focus on milestone deadlines of SDLC phases to the detriment of sound development practices.
3. Enhanced Waterfall SDLC © 2008 by Prentice Hall 13 Chapter 1 Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Enhanced Waterfall SDCL allows flexibility in development process specifically to minimize errors and producing a required system.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 14 Chapter 1 B: Rapid Application Methodologies. Effort to improve systems analysis and design process, several different approaches have been developed. Rapid Application methodologies share two key advantages
B: Rapid Application Methodologies. (Cont..) 1. Prototyping An iterative process of system development in which requirements are converted to a working system that is continually revised through close collaboration between analyst and users © 2008 by Prentice Hall 15 Chapter 1
Prototyping (Cont.) Prototype addresses some of the problem of traditional systems analysis; in particular The complaints that users only see their information system at implementation Too late to make changes Analyst to experiment on the users instead of the system. The first version of the system is also the final version, etc © 2008 by Prentice Hall 16 Chapter 1
Prototyping (Cont.) In information systems there are different kinds of prototype with different objectives. The most common use of prototype is to examine area where the user and analyst are unsure of the requirement and feel they need tease out and explore the real needs by showing and amending a physical approximation of a system. There are two types of prototypes A throwaway (or expendable) prototype An evolutionary prototype. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 17 Chapter 1
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 18 Chapter 1 Prototyping (Cont.)
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 19 Chapter 1 Identify Problem stage of minimally indentifying and describing a problem. The application area is not well defined and the organization in not familiar with the technology. Develop Prototype Construct a prototype for evaluation by users;
Prototyping (Cont.) Implement and Use Prototype A process of indentifying true organizational and user need for the problem/opportunity at hand; Revise and Enhance Prototype A set of evaluation and prototype modification stage; Convert to Operational System Using the prototype as an operational system. Tools for Prototyping are CASE tools © 2008 by Prentice Hall 20 Chapter 1
Prototyping (Cont.) Some advantages of Prototyping Reduces development time. Reduces development costs. Requires user involvement. Developers receive quantifiable user feedback. Facilitates system implementation since users know what to expect. Results in higher user satisfaction. Exposes developers to potential future system enhancements. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 21 Chapter 1
Prototyping (Cont.) Some Disadvantages of Prototyping Can lead to insufficient analysis. Users expect the performance of the ultimate system to be the same as the prototype. Developers can become too attached to their prototypes Can cause systems to be left unfinished and/or implemented before they are ready. Sometimes leads to incomplete documentation. If sophisticated software prototypes (4th GL or CASE Tools) are employed, the time saving benefit of prototyping can be lost. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 22 Chapter 1
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 23 Chapter 1 Summary In this Lecture you have learned The differences between Traditional and Rapid Systems Methodologies Types and steps that can be adapted for Traditional SDLC Waterfall SDLC Rapid Application Methodologies Prototyping (1)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Chapter 6 Determining System Requirements Modern Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph.
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