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Adapting Agile Approaches Irena Tyler, Eric Shapland, Natalia Podluzanska.

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Presentation on theme: "Adapting Agile Approaches Irena Tyler, Eric Shapland, Natalia Podluzanska."— Presentation transcript:


2 Adapting Agile Approaches Irena Tyler, Eric Shapland, Natalia Podluzanska

3 Introduction Issues to be addressed:  Agile methods: What is it? Why implementing it? Does it work? How to implement it?

4 Presentation Plan Waterfall approach overview Agile approach overview Adopting Agile - Main concerns Adopting agile - Why Implementing Agile - Case studies Adopting Agile methods - How Summary Questions

5 Waterfall approach overview One of the first structured approaches to software development Staged nature of the process Output driven design Benefits:  Well tried and tested  Documentation  Some control (cost, benefits)  Phases = more manageable tasks  Progress can be reviewed after each phase

6 Waterfall approach overview Some shortfalls:  Management needs are neglected  Inflexible to changes in business processes  Inflexible to changes in requirements  User dissatisfaction  Problems with estimated resources (time, people, etc)  Exceptional conditions are ignored = incomplete systems  Application backlog  Systems difficult to maintain  Assumes ideal approach to everything  Assumes start afresh

7 Waterfall approach overview Traditional development processes are a bit like firing a cannon. Analysis is like taking aim: you work out as carefully as you can where the design effort should end up. Then the designers and coders go off on their own trajectory for many months… while everyone holds their breath to see if they land anywhere near the target 1. © Syntropy Ltd. 2003-2007

8 Agile approach overview Emerged to address problems of waterfall approach Examples: XP, Scrum Main characteristics:  Iteration – each part to deliver working software  Short life cycles  Requirements must evolve  Risk seen as inevitable and an opportunity  Change is a norm  Only high value activities  Individuals and their intelligence in line with generative rules (minimum set of principles)  People orientation  Collaboration and communication – no “us and them”

9 Agile approach overview Agile Manifesto:  Individuals and interactions over processes and tools  Working software over comprehensive documentation  Customer collaboration over contract negotiation  Responding to change over following a plan

10 Agile approach overview Breaking the development into small cycles Where each cycle produces visible results that can be evaluated and reviewed The cycles may be as short as one day, but never longer than a few weeks Result: There are many points at which the direction of the work can be re-appraised Which minimises investment in work that might otherwise be headed in the wrong direction 1 © Syntropy Ltd. 2003-2007

11 Adopting Agile - Main concerns Management feels not in control Big change within organisation Applicability to  Larger companies  Larger projects  Larger teams  Safety-critical domains Manifesto places too stronger emphasis on one element over the other (software over documentation) Very little information

12 Adopting agile - Why The beauty of NOT doing agile development... is that failure comes as a complete surprise, instead of being preceded by months of worry! 2 © | by kelly waters

13 Adopting agile - Why Need a change Actual development doesn’t adhere to current models anyway Minimize effect of changes Delivering part as functional software helps to demonstrate project status to customers Small packages help focus Quality improvement Eliminates big-bang integration period Increase of customer feedback On time delivery

14 Implementing Agile - Case studies Survey:  Sample: 20 project managers from 20 companies (Italy, US and Switzerland)  10 - agile and 10 - plan based  Method: interview including questionnaires  Goal: Project managers’ most important issues in improving process, organize teams and solve problems

15 Implementing Agile - Case studies Main problems in software development:  Delivering complete system on time  Relationship with customers Main problems solved by adopting agile method:  Customer relationship – 60% of problems solved  Difficulty to deliver software on time – 40% of problems solved

16 Implementing Agile - Case studies How happy managers are with:  Planning and organisation: Agile companies: Sufficiently (80%) or Very (20%) satisfied with current project planning Plan-based companies: Sufficiently (60%), Very (20%) and Not at all (20%)

17 Implementing Agile - Case studies Multinational companies/large projects: ABB Automation Product: Real-time industrial control and automation systems Customer: Industrial Ericsson Microwave Systems Product: Embedded radar control and target tracking Customer: Military

18 Implementing Agile - Case studies ABB Automation  Initial management support  Resources  Product releases ahead of schedule and under budget

19 Implementing Agile - Case studies Ericsson Microwave Systems  No initial management support  Delivered functionality successfully  Management perceived methodology a threat  But later has become very interested as XP developed parts were of significantly higher quality

20 Implementing Agile - Case studies Most recent cases: BT  Implemented October 2004  Results so far: reduction of complexity improved flexibility and control savings of approximately 19% in unit costs while doubling the amount of work being completed BT has increased its internal business partner satisfaction rate from 65% to 80% within 2 years

21 Adopting Agile methods - How Landmark Graphics investigation (based on Alistair Cockburn’s Crystal methods, Barry Boehm’s risk-based approach and Boston Matrix) Goal:  To devise guidelines for identifying how much is “barely sufficient” (or just enough principal of Agile approach) for a particular project Main variables:  Project Uncertainty  Project Complexity

22 Adopting Agile methods - How Landmark Graphics suggested practices:  Core practices: Aggregate product plan Priority A/B/C list Quality agreement Continuous integration Expert user involvement Project dashboard  Additional practices: Depends on the project

23 Adopting Agile methods - How Colts High Uncertainty & Low Complexity Additional beneficial practices: Short iterations Daily stand-up meetings Automated unit tests Bulls High Uncertainty & High Complexity Additional beneficial practices: Iterations - longer than Colts but shorter than for Cows Best and most experience managers Should not have more Bull projects than Bull project managers Dogs, skunks Low Uncertainty & Low Complexity Additional beneficial practices: Just core practices are sufficient Cows Low Uncertainty & High Complexity Additional beneficial practices: More rigorous requirements management Functional specification Relatively detailed project plans Projects brake down into subprojects Coordinated by team of leaders Landmark Graphics model

24 Adopting Agile methods - How Primavera experience Benefits gained:  30% follow by 75% increase in quality software  Reduced number of defects freed up time to start new releases  Adjust to changes midstream  Improved work environment  Improved business

25 Adopting Agile methods - How Tips from Primavera experience  Need a sponsor – someone willing to take a risk  Get executive support  Don’t work overtime  Objective coaching  Focus on teamwork  Use established agile language  Learn to negotiate and set expectations  Watch for trouble – positive reinforcement  Expect hard work

26 Adopting Agile methods - How Primavera obstacles/challenges encountered  Some teams too eager to show their accomplishments and show features that are not tested or have bugs  Focusing on short-term deliverables  Stakeholders wanted to know whole project completion date  Not required features added following stakeholders feedback

27 Summary Agile methods:  Unknown territory  Seems somewhat liberal and reformist But:  Proven to work for different organisations  Proven to address some of the issues of waterfall approach However:  Need to take care when implementing

28 Sources 1. Syntropy 2. all about agile 3. Information Systems Development D.Avison, G. Fitzgerald, 2006 4. Adapting Agile Approaches to Your Project Needs, S.Mellor 5. Implementing Agile approach image 6. tm BT's IT transformation tm

29 Questions

30 Implementing Agile approach © 2007 Standard Data Systems Limited “We have to add a new feature to our next release. Can you please put it on the list?” “Yes, of course. Just let us know which feature you want us to postpone in its place.”

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