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Systems Analysis and Design 5th Edition Chapter 2. Project Selection and Management Alan Dennis, Barbara Haley Wixom, and Roberta Roth 2-0© Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 2 Outline Project selection. Creating the project plan. Managing and controlling the project. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-1
INTRODUCTION CIOs (chief information officers) are challenged to select projects that will provide highest return on the IT investments. Project portfolio management has become a critical success factor for IT departments. A selected system development project must undergo a thorough process of project management. A critical success factor for project management is to start with a realistic assessment of the work and then manage the project according to the plan. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-2
PROJECT SELECTION Systems projects today are evaluated in the context of an entire portfolio of projects. Determination of a project’s contribution to an entire portfolio of a project reinforces the need for a feasibility study. Portfolio management takes into consideration the different of projects that exist in an organization. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-3
(cont’d) An approval committee must be selective about where to allocate resources as most organizations have limited funds. If there are several potentially high- payoff projects, and they all have the same risk, then maybe only one of the projects will be selected. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-4
CREATING THE PROJECT PLAN Project management phases consist of - initiation - planning - execution - control, and - enclosure. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-5
Project Methodology Options A methodology is a formalized approach to implementing the SDLC. - Waterfall Development - Parallel Development - V-model (variation of the Waterfall Development) - Rapid Application Development (RAD) - Iterative Development - System prototyping - Agile Development © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-6
Waterfall Development © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-7
Parallel Development © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-8
V-model © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-9
Rapid Application Development: Iterative Development © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-10
Rapid Application Development: System Prototyping © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-11
(cont’d) © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-12 Throwaway prototyping
Agile Development A group of programming-centric methodologies that focus on streamlining the SDLC. Includes face-to-face communication Extreme programming – emphasizes customer satisfaction and teamwork. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-13
Extreme Programming © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-14
Selecting the Appropriate Development Methodology © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-15
(cont’d) Important factors to consider in selecting the development methodology - Clarity of User Requirements - Familiarity with Technology - System Complexity - System Reliability - Short Time Schedules - Schedule Visibility © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-16
Estimating the Project Time Frame 1. Estimating Project Time Using Industry Standards 2. Function point approach (Appendix 2A) © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-17
Developing the Work Plan Identify Tasks © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-18
(cont’d) Work Breakdown Structure © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-19
(cont’d) © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-20 The project work plan
STAFFING THE PROJECT Staffing Plan - Staffing levels will change over a project’s lifetime - Adding staff may add more overhead than additional labor - Using teams of 8-10 reporting in a hierarchical structure can reduce complexity © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-21
(cont’d) © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-22 Reporting structure
(cont’d) The staffing plan describes the kinds of people working on the project The project charter describes the project’s objectives and rules A functional lead manages a group of analysts A technical lead oversees progress of programmers and technical staff members © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-23
Motivation Use monetary rewards cautiously Use intrinsic rewards – Recognition – Achievement – The work itself – Responsibility – Advancement – Chance to learn new skills © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-24
Handling Conflict Clearly define plans for the project. Recognize project importance to organization. Project charter listing norms and ground rules. Develop schedule commitments ahead of time. Forecast other priorities and their possible impact on the project. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-25
Coordinating Project Activities CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools – A category of software that automate all or part of the development process. - Upper CASE - Lower CASE - Integrated CASE © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-26
(cont’d) Standards – Formal rules for naming files – Forms indicating goals reached – Programming guidelines Documentation – Project binder – Table of contents – Continual updating © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-27
MANAGING AND CONTROLLING THE PROJECT The science (or art) of project management is in making trade-offs among three important concepts: - the size of the system, - the time to complete the project, and - the cost of the project. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-28
(cont’d) Tools for project management – Example of Gantt Chart © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-29
Refining Estimates © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-30
Managing Scope Scope creep – the most common reason for schedule and cost overruns occurs after the project is underway. The project manager should allow only absolutely necessary requirements to be added after the project begins. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-31
Timeboxing Set a fixed deadline for a project Reduce functionality, if necessary Don’t get hung up on the final “finishing touches” © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-32
Timeboxing steps © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-33
Managing Risk Risk assessment Actions to reduce risk Revised assessment © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-34
SUMMARY The project selection process takes into account all of the projects in the organization, using project portfolio management. The project plan defines the tasks, task time estimates, and other information. A project requires staffing and coordinating project activities. Managing and controlling the project include timeboxing and risk assessment. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-35
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for redistribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. © Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2-36
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