2The continent of Africa contains more independent nations (54) than any other continent.
3M I L E SM I L E SAfrica is the second largest continent 11,700,000 sq. mi.10% of the world’s population lives in Africa.It is 3 times the size of the U. S.
4REGIONS North Africa East Africa Central Africa West Africa South Africa
5Using sea and land routes, migrating people, traders and conquerors spread ideas, religious traditions, inventions and achievements in Europe, Asia and Africa. The movement of customs or ideas from one place to another is called :CULTURAL DIFFUSION.Mediterranean SeaRed SeaIndian OceanAtlantic Ocean
6Nile RiverCongo RiverZambezi RiverNiger RiverOrange RiverLimpopo RiverMediterranean SeaAtlantic OceanPacific OceanRed SeaL. VictoriaL. Albert-->L. Chad-->L. Tanganyika-><--Gulf of AdenBodiesOfWaterRivers in Africa provide fish for food; water for irrigation; transportation routes; hydroelectric power (energy produced by moving water); and, are a source of precious metals.Indian Ocean
7BASINA basin is the entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries.Amazon River Basin
8Nile River The Nile is the world’s longest river at 4,160 miles. The Nile flows NORTH.The source (start) of the Nile is at Lake Victoria.
9Aswan Dam In 1970 Egypt built the Aswan Dam for Hydroelectric power Aswan Dam In 1970 Egypt built the Aswan Dam for Hydroelectric power. The Dam also created a lake that stores water for irrigation. However the dam traps rich silt that was beneficial for Egyptian soil. As a result, Egyptian farmers must now buy and use fertilizers for crops.
10The Congo River Produces hydroelectric power. Has many waterfalls and rapids preventing boats from traveling the entire river.2,922 miles longAfrica's most powerful river and the second most voluminous river in the world with a discharge of 1,500,000 cubic feet of water per second.It is the fifth longest river in the world, draining a basin of nearly 1.5 million square milesThe Congo River Basin covers the area (forested and non-forested) drained by the Congo River.
11The Niger River Basin Covers 7.5% of the continent. Extends over 10 countries.2,600 miles long.Used for irrigation and transport
20Great Rift Valley 4,000 miles long The Great Rift Valley is rich in minerals and metalsGood soil for farmingBecause of volcanic ash there are well preserved bones and the world’s oldest human fossils have been found there2 largest lakes in Africa are along the Great Rift Valley: Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi
21Africa: The “Tropical” Continent Tropic of Cancer 20° N80% of Africa is in the tropics (the area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This makes climates generally warm throughout the year.Equator 0°Tropic of Capricorn 20° S
22Vegetation Zones Savanna - 51%, Tropical Rainforest - 8%, Desert - 40% Mediterranean - 1%,About 85% of the land in Africa is not suited to farming
23Tropical Wet Climate Region Rain forests cover 8% of AfricaHot and humid year round (average temperature 80).Rainfall from inches (5 – 10 feet) a yearCovers 37 countries.Leeching (rain washes away soil nutrients) leads to poor soil for farming.Lots of disease causing insects, mold and rot
24Tropical Wet & Dry Climate: The African Savannah The savannah is the largest climate zone in Africa covering over ½ of the continentThere is a Wet (winter) and Dry (summer) seasonUnpredictable rainfall can lead to drought (long periods with little or no rain)
25Deserts cover about 40% of Africa Libyan DesertDesertsDeserts cover about 40% of AfricaSahara DesertSahelNamib DesertKalahari Desert
26The Sahara DesertThe Sahara is larger than the US. Temperatures can reach as high as 130 and some areas go 10 years without rain. A few areas have grasses that can support animals. For thousands of years people have carried goods and ideas across the Sahara.
27The Kalahari DesertThe Kalahari is not as dry as the Sahara. Grasses and wild melon grow and animals are able to graze.
28The Namib DesertThe Namib Desert is one of the driest places on Earth. Trees and get water from mists that drift from the Ocean. Still animals and people find ways to survive in this area.
29Turning semidesert land into desert. DesertificationTurning semidesert land into desert.Desertification can happen by natural actions: drought or by human actions such as cutting down forest for cooking fuel or to make farmland, overgrazing of shrubs and grasses by cattle and goats.With no grass or tree roots, the topsoil blows away and the desert advances.
30The Sahel is especially affected by desertification
31Natural ResourcesThe most abundant natural resources in Africa are gold, diamonds, copper, cobalt, and oil.However, the distribution of resources is uneven causing wealth in some counties and poverty in others.