# The continent of Africa contains more independent nations (54) than any other continent.
# Africa is the second largest continent 11,700,000 sq. mi. # 10% of the world’s population lives in Africa. # It is 3 times the size of the U. S. 5000MILES5000MILES 4 6 0 0 M I L E S
North Africa West Africa East Africa South Africa Central Africa REGIONS
Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Using sea and land routes, migrating people, traders and conquerors spread ideas, religious traditions, inventions and achievements in Europe, Asia and Africa. The movement of customs or ideas from one place to another is called : CULTURAL DIFFUSION.
Bodies Of Water Indian Ocean Nile River Congo River Zambezi River Niger River Orange River Limpopo River Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Red Sea L. Victoria L. Albert--> L. Chad--> L. Tanganyika-> <--Gulf of Aden Rivers in Africa provide fish for food; water for irrigation; transportation routes; hydroelectric power (energy produced by moving water); and, are a source of precious metals.
BASIN A basin is the entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries. Amazon River Basin
Nile River The Nile is the world’s longest river at 4,160 miles. The Nile flows NORTH. The source (start) of the Nile is at Lake Victoria.
Aswan Dam In 1970 Egypt built the Aswan Dam for Hydroelectric power. The Dam also created a lake that stores water for irrigation. However the dam traps rich silt that was beneficial for Egyptian soil. As a result, Egyptian farmers must now buy and use fertilizers for crops.
The Congo River # Produces hydroelectric power. # Has many waterfalls and rapids preventing boats from traveling the entire river. # 2,922 miles long # Africa's most powerful river and the second most voluminous river in the world with a discharge of 1,500,000 cubic feet of water per second. # It is the fifth longest river in the world, draining a basin of nearly 1.5 million square miles The Congo River Basin covers the area (forested and non-forested) drained by the Congo River.
The Niger River Basin # Covers 7.5% of the continent. # Extends over 10 countries. # 2,600 miles long. # Used for irrigation and transport
# 4,000 miles long # The Great Rift Valley is rich in minerals and metals # Good soil for farming # Because of volcanic ash there are well preserved bones and the world’s oldest human fossils have been found there # 2 largest lakes in Africa are along the Great Rift Valley: Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi
Africa: The “Tropical” Continent Tropic of Cancer 20° N Tropic of Capricorn 20° S Equator 0° 80% of Africa is in the tropics (the area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This makes climates generally warm throughout the year.
Vegetation Zones Savanna - 51%, Tropical Rainforest - 8%, Desert - 40% Mediterranean - 1%, About 85% of the land in Africa is not suited to farming
Tropical Wet Climate Region # Rain forests cover 8% of Africa # Hot and humid year round (average temperature 80). # Rainfall from 60-120 inches (5 – 10 feet) a year # Covers 37 countries. # Leeching (rain washes away soil nutrients) leads to poor soil for farming. # Lots of disease causing insects, mold and rot
Tropical Wet & Dry Climate: The African Savannah # The savannah is the largest climate zone in Africa covering over ½ of the continent # There is a Wet (winter) and Dry (summer) season # Unpredictable rainfall can lead to drought (long periods with little or no rain)
Deserts Deserts cover about 40% of Africa Sahara Desert Sahel Kalahari Desert Namib Desert Libyan Desert
The Sahara Desert The Sahara is larger than the US. Temperatures can reach as high as 130 and some areas go 10 years without rain. A few areas have grasses that can support animals. For thousands of years people have carried goods and ideas across the Sahara.
The Kalahari Desert The Kalahari is not as dry as the Sahara. Grasses and wild melon grow and animals are able to graze.
The Namib Desert The Namib Desert is one of the driest places on Earth. Trees and get water from mists that drift from the Ocean. Still animals and people find ways to survive in this area.
Desertification Turning semidesert land into desert. Desertification can happen by natural actions: drought or by human actions such as cutting down forest for cooking fuel or to make farmland, overgrazing of shrubs and grasses by cattle and goats. With no grass or tree roots, the topsoil blows away and the desert advances.
The Sahel is especially affected by desertification
Natural Resources The most abundant natural resources in Africa are gold, diamonds, copper, cobalt, and oil. However, the distribution of resources is uneven causing wealth in some counties and poverty in others.
The Complete Topography Of AFRICA Nile River Congo River Zambezi River Niger River Orange River Limpopo River Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Red Sea L. Victoria L. Albert--> L. Chad--> L. Tanganyika-> <--Gulf of Aden Drajensburg Mts. Ruwenzori Mts. Δ Mt. Kenya Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro Sahara Desert Sahel Kalahari Desert Namib Desert Libyan Desert Great Rift Valley Atlas Mts. Tropic of Cancer 20° N Tropic of Capricorn 20° S Equator 0°