Main points Project Life Cycle System Development Life Cycle Waterfall Model PMBOK
Examples of IT projects A help desk or technical worker replaces laptops for a small department A small software development team adds a new feature to an internal software application A college campus upgrades its technology infrastructure to provide wireless Internet access A television network develops a system to allow viewers to vote for contestants and provide other feedback on programs. A government group develops a system to track child immunizations.
PLC Project Life Cycle (PLC) A collection of logical stages or phases that maps the life of a project from its beginning to its end in order to define, build and deliver the product of the project – i.e., the information system Projects are divided into phases to increase manageability and reduce risk Phase exits, stage gates, or kill points are decision points at the end of each phase to evaluate performance, correct problems or cancel the project Fast tracking is the overlapping of phases to reduce the project’s schedule Can be risky!
SDLC SDLC represents the sequential phases or stages an information system follows throughout its useful life It is useful for understanding the development of the project’s largest work product – the application system Phases/Stages Planning Analysis Design Implementation Maintenance and Support
SDLC & PLC The systems development life cycle (SDLC) becomes part of the project life cycle (PLC). The PLC focuses on the project management phases, processes, tools and techniques for effectively managing the project. The SDLC focuses on the software engineering phases, processes, tools and techniques for building and/or implementing the IT solution.
SDLC & PLC
Putting SDLC in Practice Structured Approach to Systems Development Waterfall Method iterative Iterative System Development Rapid Applications Development (RAD) Prototyping Spiral Development Extreme Programming
Waterfall A waterfall model is easy to follow. It can be implemented for any size project. Every stage has to be done separately at the right time so you cannot jump stages. Documentation is produced at every stage of a waterfall model allowing people to understand what has been done. Testing is done at every stage.
Waterfall Adv. A waterfall model helps find problems earlier on which can cost a business less than if it was found later on. Requirements will be set and these wouldn't be changed. As everything is documented a new team member can easily understand what's to be done. Implementers have to follow the design accurately
Waterfall Dis. If requirements may change the Waterfall model may not work. Many believe it is impossible to make one stage of the projects life cycle perfect. Difficult to estimate time and cost for each stage of the development process. Constant testing of the design is needed.
PMBOK The Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) documents 9 project management knowledge areas. The PMBOK® Guide is published and maintained by the Project Management Institute (PMI). PMI provides a certification in project management called the Project Management Professional (PMP) that many people today believe will be as relevant as a CPA certification. PMP certification requires that you pass a PMP certification exam to demonstrate a level of understanding about project management, as well as satisfy education and experience requirements, and agree to a professional code of conduct.
PMBOK Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Four core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality). Four facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management). One knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas. All knowledge areas are important!
Define scope of project Identify stakeholders, decision-makers, and escalation procedures Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures) Estimate time requirements Develop initial project management flow chart Identify required resources and budget Evaluate project requirements Identify and evaluate risks Prepare contingency plan Identify interdependencies Identify and track critical milestones Participate in project phase review Secure needed resources Manage the change control process Report project status Fifteen Project Management Job Functions