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4/30/2015© 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 1 Traditional Project Management Agile Project Management Making Sense of Agile Project Management
My View of Project Management Today 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 2 Business Analysis and Problem-Solving Skills Project Management Discipline and Skills Quality/Process Discipline Subject Matter Knowledge Management/ Leadership Skills
The Next Generation of Project Management 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 3 Business Analysis and Problem-Solving Skills Project Management Discipline and Skills Quality/Process Discipline Subject Matter Knowledge Management/ Leadership Skills Business Analysis and Problem-Solving Skills Project Management Discipline and Skills Quality/Process Discipline Subject Matter Knowledge Management/ Leadership Skills Traditional Project Management Roles New Agile Project Management Roles
Key Questions for Project Managers 1. Impact on Existing Project Methodologies: How does agile impact existing project methodologies? Is there still a need for traditional Waterfall approaches? 2. Finding the “Middle Ground”: Is there a middle ground between agile and traditional Waterfall for companies that want to find a balance of control and agility? 3. Relationship to PMBOK: How do I reconcile all the traditional PMI PMBOK knowledge that has been the foundation of project management for so long with many of the new ideas and principles that are the foundation of the agile movement? 4. Impact on the Future of Project Management: What is the impact of the agile movement on the future of project management? How does it change the project management role? 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 4
Agile Overview Perceptions, Stereotypes and Reality
Summary of Key Differences Plan-Driven (e.g., Waterfall)Agile (e.g., Scrum) Requirements Definition Detailed Requirements Defined Upfront Prior to Starting Design/Development Only high-level Product Backlog Upfront, Detailed Requirements Defined as the Design Progresses Planning Approach Heavy Emphasis on Upfront Planning Rolling-wave Planning Defer Planning Decisions as long as possible Scope ControlScope Control is Essential to Controlling Costs and Schedules Scope is Expected to Change and Expand to Meet User Needs Project Mgt Approach Emphasis on Control of Cost and Schedules Emphasis on Flexibility and Adaptability to Satisfy Business Need 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 6
Agile Perception vs. Reality 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 7 Common Perception: Agile = Scrum or Some Other Standard Agile Methodology like XP If You’re Not Doing Scrum or another Standard Agile Methodology “by the book”, You’re Not Agile Perception: Traditional Waterfall Approach Typical Agile Approach Gap Reality: Adaptive Approaches Increasing Agility Plan-Driven Approaches Iterative Approaches
Perception versus Reality – Process P ERCEPTION *: N O P ROCESS C HAOTIC, N O C ONTROL W ON ’ T WORK FOR COMPLEX PROJECTS U NPROFESSIONAL 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 8 Agile Waterfall P ERCEPTION *: T OO MUCH PAPERWORK L OTS OF CHECKLISTS C UMBERSOME PROCESSES T HE PROCESS MANAGES YOU INSTEAD OF YOU MANAGING THE PROCESS ControlAgility Huge Gap * A DAPTED FROM B RIAN B OZZUTO ’ S P RESENTATION ON A LIGNING PMBOK AND A GILE – PMI W ORLD C ONGRESS 2009 R EALITY – Y OU C AN : Define a Process that is Appropriate to the Level of Control Desired Design a Sufficient Level of Flexibility into the Process
Perception versus Reality – Empowerment and Motivation P ERCEPTION : E MPOWERED T EAMS H IGHLY M OTIVATED T EAMS 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 9 P ERCEPTION : N O E MPOWERMENT U N -M OTIVATED T EAMS Agile Waterfall ControlAgility Huge Gap R EALITY – Y OU C AN : Create a Level of Empowerment That Is Consistent With the Need for Control and the Capabilities of the Team Use Appropriate Management/Leadership Style to Maximize Motivation
Perception versus Reality – Customer Collaboration P ERCEPTION : E MPHASIZES W ORKING S OFTWARE OVER D OCUMENTATION E MPHASIZES C USTOMER C OLLABORATION O VER C ONTRACTS 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 10 P ERCEPTION : E MPHASIZES D OCUMENTATION OVER W ORKING S OFTWARE E MPHASIZES F ORMAL C ONTRACTS Agile Waterfall ControlAgility Huge Gap R EALITY – Y OU C AN : Develop a Customer Collaboration Approach that Balances Customer Engagement Against Control of Requirements Use documentation to fulfill a real need
Perception versus Reality – Planning P ERCEPTION : F OCUSED ON R ESPONDING TO C HANGE R ATHER THAN F OLLOWING A P LAN 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 11 P ERCEPTION : H EAVY F OCUS ON F OLLOWING A P LAN Agile Waterfall ControlAgility Huge Gap R EALITY – Y OU C AN : Use an Appropriate Level of Planning to Manage the Risks Combine Planning with an Appropriate Level of Change Control
Potential Benefits of Agile 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc Increased Focus on Successful Business Outcomes Development Approach is More Adaptive to Customer Needs and Customer is More Engaged 2. Faster Time to Market Planning Process is Streamlined and Iterative Approach Accelerates Development 3. Organizational Effectiveness and Employee Morale More Unified Approach to Product Development and Higher Level of Employee Engagement 4. Higher Productivity and Lower Costs Eliminate Unnecessary Overhead and Bottlenecks and More Effective Utilization 5. Potential for Higher Quality Testing is an Integral Part of Development and Early Validation of Customer Needs
Obstacles to Becoming Agile 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc Collaborative Cross-Functional Approach is Difficult to Achieve Business Sponsors and Development Teams Within the Development Organization 2. Significant Organizational Commitment May Be Required Requires Active Participation by Business Sponsors May Require Cultural Change Training and Skill Level of Employees is Significant 3. Business Environment May Impose Constraints Regulatory Requirements Other Business Process Control Requirements 4. Project Management Approach Needs to Be Redefined More Sophisticated Approach to Project Management Design Methodologies to Fit the Business and Project Environment
Impact on Existing Methodologies How does agile impact existing project methodologies? Is there still a need for traditional Waterfall approaches?
Key Challenges Need to Rethink Project Management Approach to Provide an Appropriate Balance of Control and Agility for Each Project A Large Percentage of Projects that Successfully meet Project Cost and Schedule Goals Fail to Achieve the Desired Business Outcome* Excessive Emphasis on Control Creates Unnecessary Bureaucracy and Slows Time to Market 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 15 Control Agility Project Costs & Schedules Customer Engagement & Business Outcomes * F ROM J AMIE C APELLA C ORPORATE E XECUTIVE B OARD S TUDY – P RESENTATION TO PMI M ASS B AY C HAPTER F EB 2010
Traditional Waterfall Approach 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 16 Define Requirements Design/Develop Solution Test/Implement Solution Implement Change Control Control Agility Best Controlling Changes to Requirements is Essential to Controlling Costs and Schedules Worst Might be Unrealistic in an Uncertain Environment Inflexible and Not Easily Adaptable to Fit User Needs Unnecessary Overhead and Worst Time to Market
Agile Approach 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 17 Define Requirements Design/Develop Test Limited High-level Requirements (Product Backlog) Sprint (Iteration) Planning Release Planning Define Requirements Design/Develop Test Control Agility Worst Scope Creep - Encourages Customer to Define and Change Requirements as the Design Develops Best Higher Quality - Customer is Directly Engaged Throughout the Design Effort as it Progresses Reduced Overhead and Faster Time to Market
Finding the “Middle Ground” Is there a middle ground between agile and traditional Waterfall for companies that want to find a balance of control and agility?
Key Recommendations 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 19 AgileWaterfall Business Project D ON ’ T : F ORCE -F IT Y OUR B USINESS AND P ROJECTS TO A M ETHODOLOGY A SSUME THAT Y OU N EED TO P ICK A S INGLE M ETHODOLOGY AgileWaterfall Business Project D O : T AILOR THE A PPROPRIATE M IX OF M ETHODOLOGIES AND P RACTICES TO F IT Y OUR B USINESS AND P ROJECTS
Key Recommendations (cont.) 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 20 AgileWaterfall Business Project DON’T: DESTROY THE METHODOLOGY TO FIT A BUSINESS CULTURE YOU KNOW IS DYSFUNCTIONAL AgileWaterfall Business Project D O : U SE A GILE AS A C ATALYST FOR P OSITIVE B USINESS C HANGE Business Project
Where Will Your Company Wind Up? 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 21 Business Environment and Culture Waterfall Agile Process (Level of Control) Empowerment & Motivation Customer Collaboration Planning Approach ControlAgility K EY Q UESTIONS : What’s the right balance of control and agility for your company’s business? How much cultural change is your company willing or able to undertake to create a more agile approach?
Example Hybrid Approach 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 22 Development Layer Based on Scrum Project Charter Project ScheduleOn-going Project Management Limited Form of Change Management Traditional Project Mgt Layer S OURCE : HTTP :// EN. WIKIPEDIA. ORG / WIKI /S CRUM _( DEVELOPMENT )
Relationship to PMBOK How do I reconcile all the traditional PMI PMBOK knowledge that has been the foundation of project management for so long with many of the new ideas and principles that are the foundation of the agile movement?
Relationship to PMBOK: 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 24 Agile Principles & Practices PMBOK Business Project O VER 500 P AGES OF D ETAILED G UIDELINES “T AILOR D OWN ” A PPROACH “T AILOR U P ” A PPROACH B ROAD P RINCIPLES AND V ERY F LEXIBLE AND A DAPTIVE P RACTICES KEY POINTS: BOTH PMBOK AND AGILE PRINCIPLES NEED TO BE ADAPTED TO FIT THE PROJECT ONE IS A TAILOR-DOWN APPROACH THE OTHER IS A TAILOR-UP APPROACH FIGURING OUT HOW TO MIX THE TWO TOGETHER CAN REQUIRE A LOT OF SKILL M ANY OF THE P ERCEIVED D IFFERENCES B ETWEEN PMBOK AND A GILE ARE IN THEIR I NTERPRETATION AND H OW THEY ’ RE A PPLIED N OT IN THE P RINCIPLES T HEMSELVES
Relationship to PMBOK (cont.): 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 25 Agile Principles & Practices PMBOK Business Project P RIMARILY CENTERED ON HIGHER - LEVEL PROJECT MGT ASPECTS P RIMARILY CENTERED ON DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS KEY POINTS: BOTH THE OVERALL PROJECT MANAGEMENT ASPECTS AS WELL AS THE DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF A PROJECT MUST BE ADDRESSED HOW WOULD YOU DECIDE ON THE APPROPRIATE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE SOFTWARE PHASE OF YOUR PROJECT WITHOUT FIRST CONSIDERING THE OVERALL INTEGRATION AND PLANNING APPROACH?* O RIGINAL COMMENT FROM G LEN D ELES ON L INKED I N
Impact on the Future of Project Management 1. What is the impact of the agile movement on the future of project management? 2. How does it change the project management role?
Impact on the Future of Project Management: 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 27 “In the past, some project managers may have acted as “cooks” – they know how to prepare a limited number of recipes (methodologies) and sometimes do it ‘by the book’”. ”In the future, being a good “cook” may not be good enough and more project managers may need to become “chefs” “The agile movement forces project managers to consider a much broader range of ‘recipes’ and ‘ingredients’ to ‘cook’ with and requires a much more customized and tailored approach.” They need to know how to prepare a much broader range of dishes and go beyond preparing standard recipes by the book to create highly customized and innovative “recipes” tailored to fit a particular business and project environment. O RIGINAL C OOK VS. C HEF A NALOGY FROM B OB W YSOCKI
Project Management Approach 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 28 Pure Agile (e.g. Scrum) Extreme Waterfall ControlAgility T RADITIONAL A PPROACH E MPHASIS ON P LANNING AND C ONTROL H YBRID A PPROACHES F OCUS ON B USINESS O UTCOMES A BILITY TO M IX - AND -M ATCH AND T AILOR M ETHODOLOGIES TO F IT THE B USINESS P URE A GILE A PPROACH ( E. G. S CRUM ) H EAVY F OCUS ON C USTOMER V ALUE & P ARTICIPATION E MPHASIS ON T EAM F ACILITATION V ERY D YNAMIC AND A DAPTIVE A PPROACH
Need to Rethink Definition of “Agile” 4/30/2015 © 2010 Breakthrough Solutions, Inc. 29 Broader Definition of Agility*: “T HE ABILITY TO CREATE AND RESPOND TO CHANGE IN ORDER TO PROFIT IN A TURBULENT GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT T HE ABILITY TO QUICKLY REPRIORITIZE USE OF RESOURCES WHEN REQUIREMENTS, TECHNOLOGY, AND KNOWLEDGE SHIFT A VERY FAST RESPONSE TO SUDDEN MARKET CHANGES AND EMERGING THREATS BY INTENSIVE CUSTOMER INTERACTION U SE OF EVOLUTIONARY, INCREMENTAL, AND ITERATIVE DELIVERY TO CONVERGE ON AN OPTIMAL CUSTOMER SOLUTION ” * D EFINITION OF “A GILITY ” FROM D R. D AVID F. R ICO “L EAN AND A GILE S YSTEMS E NGINEERING ”
Questions and Discussion
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