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IS2210: Systems Analysis and Systems Design and Change Twitter:

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1 IS2210: Systems Analysis and Systems Design and Change Twitter: Website:

2 Objectives O Understand the phases of the Waterfall Model O Advantages of the Waterfall Model O Disadvantages of the Waterfall Model

3 Types of SDLC O Waterfall Model O Spiral Model O V-Model Traditional Methods Agile Methods O Extreme Programming (XP) O Scrum O Adaptive Software Development O Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) O Feature Driven Development

4 Waterfall Model O Outlines the series of steps that should occur when building an information system O The steps usually occur in a predefined order, with a review at the end of each stage O When the review is complete, the next stage can be started

5 Waterfall Model

6 Background O This is the best know SDLC model O Simple to understand and use O The next phase only starts when the previous one has finished!!!

7 Where Applicable? O Software technologies and tools are well known O New version of the existing software system is being created O Software Requirements are clearly defined and known

8 Stages of the Waterfall Model

9 Project Identification and Selection O Identifying Potential Development Projects O Top-down source are projects identified by top management O Bottom-up source are project initiatives stemming from managers, business units, or the development group

10 Classifying and Evaluating Projects


12 Why Planning? O The key activity of project planning is the process of clear, discrete activities and the work needed to complete each activity within a single project O The objective of the project planning process is the development of a Baseline Project Plan (BPP) and the Project Scope Statement (PSS)

13 What Does It Entail? O Elements of project planning: O Describe project scope, alternatives, and feasibility O Divide project into tasks O Create resource plan O Develop schedule O Develop communication plan O Identify and assess risk O Create budget


15 Analysis Phase O Requirements Determination O Work through the details of each requirement O Study and analyse the current system O Define and prioritise users requirements

16 How? O Traditional Methods O Interviews O Observation O Documentation

17 O Modern Methods O Joint Application Design (JAD) O Prototyping


19 Design Phase O Here we decide how the system will operate O We should look at things such as: O Hardware O Software O Network Infrastructure O User Interface

20 What’s The Purpose? O To create a blueprint that will satisfy all documented requirements O Identify all inputs, processes, and outputs O Avoid misunderstandings through manager and user involvement

21 End Result? O A system design specification document

22 Two Types of Design O Logical Design O Design forms and reports O Design interface O Design database (logical)

23 O Physical Design O Design physical database O Design programs and processes O Design distributed systems

24 Forms and Reports O Forms O a business document that contains some predefined data and may include some areas where additional data is filled in O Reports O a business document that contains only predefined data

25 Types of Reports O Scheduled O Key-Indicator O Ad-Hoc

26 Interface Design



29 What is the Purpose? O To convert the final physical system specification into working and reliable software O To document work that has been done O To provide help for current and future users

30 6 Activities O Coding: physical design specifications are turned into working computer code O Testing: Testing is performed with different strategies, in parallel with coding O Installation: The current system is replaced by the new system

31 O Documentation: O Training: Application specific or for off-the- shelf software O Support:

32 Documentation O Two audiences will use final documentation O IS personnel who will maintain the system throughout its productive life O People who will use the system as part of their daily lives

33 Testing O The purpose of testing is to confirm that the system satisfies the requirements O Testing must be planned O Test case is a scenario of transactions, queries, or navigation paths

34 Types of Testing O Inspection (program code) O Walkthrough (peer group review) O Unit Testing (module testing)

35 O Integration (complete module testing) O System Testing (complete system)

36 Installation O Four strategies: O Direct Installation O Parallel Installation O Single-Location Installation O Phased Installation

37 Training and Support O Providing on-going educational and problem-solving assistance to IS users O Potential Training Topics: O Use of the system O System Management O System Installation


39 Four Major Activities O Obtaining maintenance requests O Transforming requests into changes O Designing changes O Implementing changes


41 Summary of Waterfall Model PHASEDESCRIPTION PLANNINGPlanning for Project ANALYSISSystem requirements are studied and structured LOGICAL DESIGNFocuses on the process to be performed. What is to be done PHYSICAL DESIGNFocuses on the technical aspects to implement the logical design IMPLEMENTATIONThe coding, testing, installation, documentation, training and support of the new system and the delivery of that system into production MAINTENANCEThe changes made to a system to fix or enhance its functionality

42 Advantages O Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model O Phases are processed and completed one at a time O Simple and easy to use

43 O Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood O Testing is inherent to every phase

44 Disadvantages O Adjusting scope during the lifecycle can kill a project O No working software is produced until late during the lifecycle O High amounts of risk and uncertainty

45 Thanks O Any Questions?

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