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IS2210: Systems Analysis and Systems Design and Change

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Presentation on theme: "IS2210: Systems Analysis and Systems Design and Change"— Presentation transcript:

1 IS2210: Systems Analysis and Systems Design and Change

2 Objectives Understand the phases of the Waterfall Model
Advantages of the Waterfall Model Disadvantages of the Waterfall Model

3 Types of SDLC Agile Methods Waterfall Model Spiral Model V-Model
Traditional Methods Agile Methods Waterfall Model Spiral Model V-Model Extreme Programming (XP) Scrum Adaptive Software Development Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) Feature Driven Development

4 Waterfall Model Outlines the series of steps that should occur when building an information system The steps usually occur in a predefined order, with a review at the end of each stage When the review is complete, the next stage can be started

5 Waterfall Model

6 Background This is the best know SDLC model
Simple to understand and use The next phase only starts when the previous one has finished!!!

7 Where Applicable? Software technologies and tools are well known
New version of the existing software system is being created Software Requirements are clearly defined and known

8 Stages of the Waterfall Model

9 Project Identification and Selection
Identifying Potential Development Projects Top-down source are projects identified by top management Bottom-up source are project initiatives stemming from managers, business units, or the development group

10 Classifying and Evaluating Projects


12 Why Planning? The key activity of project planning is the process of clear, discrete activities and the work needed to complete each activity within a single project The objective of the project planning process is the development of a Baseline Project Plan (BPP) and the Project Scope Statement (PSS)

13 What Does It Entail? Elements of project planning:
Describe project scope, alternatives, and feasibility Divide project into tasks Create resource plan Develop schedule Develop communication plan Identify and assess risk Create budget


15 Analysis Phase Requirements Determination
Work through the details of each requirement Study and analyse the current system Define and prioritise users requirements

16 How? Traditional Methods Interviews Observation Documentation

17 Modern Methods Joint Application Design (JAD) Prototyping


19 Design Phase Here we decide how the system will operate
We should look at things such as: Hardware Software Network Infrastructure User Interface

20 What’s The Purpose? To create a blueprint that will satisfy all documented requirements Identify all inputs, processes, and outputs Avoid misunderstandings through manager and user involvement

21 End Result? A system design specification document

22 Two Types of Design Logical Design Design forms and reports
Design interface Design database (logical)

23 Physical Design Design physical database Design programs and processes
Design distributed systems

24 Forms and Reports Forms Reports
a business document that contains some predefined data and may include some areas where additional data is filled in Reports a business document that contains only predefined data

25 Types of Reports Scheduled Key-Indicator Ad-Hoc

26 Interface Design



29 What is the Purpose? To convert the final physical system specification into working and reliable software To document work that has been done To provide help for current and future users

30 6 Activities Coding: physical design specifications are turned into working computer code Testing: Testing is performed with different strategies, in parallel with coding Installation: The current system is replaced by the new system

31 Documentation: Training: Application specific or for off-the-shelf software Support:

32 Documentation Two audiences will use final documentation
IS personnel who will maintain the system throughout its productive life People who will use the system as part of their daily lives

33 Testing The purpose of testing is to confirm that the system satisfies the requirements Testing must be planned Test case is a scenario of transactions, queries, or navigation paths

34 Types of Testing Inspection (program code)
Walkthrough (peer group review) Unit Testing (module testing)

35 Integration (complete module testing)
System Testing (complete system)

36 Installation Four strategies: Direct Installation
Parallel Installation Single-Location Installation Phased Installation

37 Training and Support Providing on-going educational and problem-solving assistance to IS users Potential Training Topics: Use of the system System Management System Installation


39 Four Major Activities Obtaining maintenance requests
Transforming requests into changes Designing changes Implementing changes


41 Summary of Waterfall Model
PHASE DESCRIPTION PLANNING Planning for Project ANALYSIS System requirements are studied and structured LOGICAL DESIGN Focuses on the process to be performed. What is to be done PHYSICAL DESIGN Focuses on the technical aspects to implement the logical design IMPLEMENTATION The coding, testing, installation, documentation, training and support of the new system and the delivery of that system into production MAINTENANCE The changes made to a system to fix or enhance its functionality

42 Advantages Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model
Phases are processed and completed one at a time Simple and easy to use

43 Testing is inherent to every phase
Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood Testing is inherent to every phase

44 Disadvantages Adjusting scope during the lifecycle can kill a project
No working software is produced until late during the lifecycle High amounts of risk and uncertainty

45 Thanks Any Questions?

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