5 Inputs:Precipitation (eg. Rain, hail, snow, sleet, dew, fog)Flows:Throughflow, Groundwater Flow, Overland FlowRivers (also a Store)Infiltration, Percolation (I.e. water seeping into the ground)Stores:Lake, SeaVegetation (I.e. water taken up by plants through roots)SoilOutputs:EvaporationEvapo-transpiration (from the stomata on the leaves of plants)
11 What's the Point of all This? Can you work out what the river is trying to do by using this diagram?
12 Long River Profile Flooding Cause 1 Flooding occurs in the lower course where land is flattest.
13 Upper Course Interlocking Spurs In the Upper Course, the river is fast flowing, but there is little water and load. The river is often called a stream and does not have the erosive power to remove the hillsides (spurs), but erodes downwards instead.EROSION TYPE: Vertical and Headward
14 Upper Course Potholes EROSION TYPE: Vertical (by EDDY CURRENTS) Boulders broken off by erosion that sit on the river bed create swirling eddy currents as the water flows past as the river is not strong enough yet to move the boulders by TRACTION. These eddies swirl the boulder round and erode a pothole in the river bed by ABRASION.
15 Upper Course Waterfall and Gorge 1 EROSION TYPE: Vertical and Headward (OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW)EROSION TYPE: Vertical and Headward
16 Upper Course Waterfall and Gorge 2 EROSION TYPE: Vertical and Headward (PROFILE VIEW)EROSION TYPE: Vertical and Headward
18 Middle Course Meanders 1 Also known as the ‘Mature’ stageMeanders are formed because the current swings to the outside of a bend and concentrates the erosion there. Deposition occurs on the inside of the bend where there is not enough energy to carry load.EROSION TYPE: Lateral
19 Middle Course Meanders 2 EROSION TYPE: Lateral (Profile View / Cross Section X - Y)EROSION TYPE: LateralThis cross section clearly shows the eddy current (near ’X’) formed by the velocity of the river being concentrated on the outside of the bend. These UNDERCUT the bank causing the formation of a RIVER CLIFF. On the inside (NEAR ‘Y’), a SLIP-OFF-SLOPE is formed where current is too slow to carry any load.
20 Middle Course Ox-Bow Lake 1 EROSION TYPE: Lateral Ox-bow lakes are formed when two meander RIVER CLIFFS are being eroded towards each other. These will eventually meet, during time of flooding causing the river to then flow across the neck of the meander. This cuts off part of the water = Oxbow LakeEROSION TYPE: Lateral
21 Ox-Bow Lake 2 (Aerial View) Middle CourseOx-Bow Lake 2 (Aerial View)
22 Leveés and Raised Beds 1 (Front View) Lower CourseLeveés and Raised Beds 1 (Front View)DEPOSITION FEATURE: no erosion in the Lower CourseLeveés are formed when rivers flood. The river water overflows the banks of the river and immediately slows down due to friction with the FLOODPLAIN. This drops the larger particles first, building up a raised river bank called a LEVEÉ.
23 Leveés and Raised Beds 2 (Front View) Lower CourseLeveés and Raised Beds 2 (Front View)DEPOSITION FEATURE: no erosion in the Lower CourseRaised beds form in the Summer months when the river volume and energy are low and load is dropped onto the river bed. The bed raises up and the capacity of the river reduces, causing flooding in the winter. This in turn builds up the leveés and the whole process raises up the level of the river in the landscape.
24 Braided Channels (Oblique Side View) Lower CourseBraided Channels (Oblique Side View)DEPOSITION FEATURE: no erosion in the Lower CourseIn the Summer months, load is dropped by the low volume of low-energy water in the river. These build up to form obstructions in the river and it divides up to flow around them. In the winter, it is likely that the river volume will increase and remove these obstructions.
25 Lower Course Delta (Aerial View) This deposition feature is one of the largest. When the flowing river hits the non-flowing sea, energy is suddenly lost. This causes all of the load in the river to drop in the river MOUTH. This builds up over time to create a delta – an area of land. The river divides into DISTRIBUTARIES to continue to the sea, which is now some way away from its original meeting point.
32 Magnitude and Frequency Flooding risk is measured in MAGNITUDES (amount) and FREQUENCIES (how often) and usually floods fall into categories such as:high frequency - low magnitude (happening often, but only small) orlow frequency - high magnitude (don't happen often, but are major floods when they do) events.
33 Drainage2: DendriticWatershedTributaryConfluenceMain River
34 Drainage3: TrellisedTributaryWatershedConfluenceMain River
35 Water Excess: Flooding Issue 1: HydrosphereWater Excess: FloodingFlooding occurs over various scales.Flooding can affect human activities.Humans attempt to prevent flooding.
36 Where is flooding likely in an area of trellised drainage? Flooding is most likely in the low-lying areas at the bottom of the slope
37 Where is flooding likely in an area of dendritic drainage? Flooding is most likely on the main river in the low-lying land
38 Where is flooding likely in an area of radial drainage? Flooding is most likely in the low-lying areas at the bottom of the hill
39 Three Types of Drainage Flooding Cause 2DrainageThree Types of Drainage1: RadialWatershed