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© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design CPE/CSC 481: Knowledge-Based Systems Dr. Franz J. Kurfess Computer Science Department Cal Poly
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Usage of the Slides ◆ these slides are intended for the students of my CPE/CSC 481 “Knowledge-Based Systems” class at Cal Poly SLO ◆ if you want to use them outside of my class, please let me know ◆ I usually put together a subset for each quarter as a “Custom Show” ◆ to view these, go to “Slide Show => Custom Shows”, select the respective quarter, and click on “Show” ◆ in Apple Keynote, I use the “Hide” feature to achieve similar results ◆ To print them, I suggest to use the “Handout” option ◆ 4, 6, or 9 per page works fine ◆ Black & White should be fine; there are few diagrams where color is important
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Course Overview ◆ Introduction ◆ Knowledge Representation ◆ Semantic Nets, Frames, Logic ◆ Reasoning and Inference ◆ Predicate Logic, Inference Methods, Resolution ◆ Reasoning with Uncertainty ◆ Probability, Bayesian Decision Making ◆ Expert System Design ◆ ES Life Cycle ◆ CLIPS Overview ◆ Concepts, Notation, Usage ◆ Pattern Matching ◆ Variables, Functions, Expressions, Constraints ◆ Expert System Implementation ◆ Salience, Rete Algorithm ◆ Expert System Examples ◆ Conclusions and Outlook
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Overview Expert System Design ◆ Motivation ◆ Objectives ◆ Chapter Introduction ◆ Review of relevant concepts ◆ Overview new topics ◆ Terminology ◆ ES Development Life Cycle ◆ Feasibility Study ◆ Rapid Prototype ◆ Refined System ◆ Field Testable ◆ Commercial Quality ◆ Maintenance and Evolution ◆ Software Engineering and ES Design ◆ Software Development Life Cycle ◆ Linear Model ES Life Cycle ◆ Planning ◆ Knowledge Definition ◆ Knowledge Design ◆ Knowledge Verification ◆ Important Concepts and Terms ◆ Chapter Summary
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Material [Awad 1996] ◆ Chapter 5: Expert System Development Life Cycle ◆ Chapter 15: Verification and Validation ◆ Chapter 17: Implementing the Expert System ◆ Chapter 18: Organizational and Managerial Impact
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Material [Durkin 1994] ◆ Chapter: 8: Designing Backward-Chaining Rule- Based Systems ◆ Chapter 10: Designing Forward-Chaining Rule- Based Systems ◆ Chapter 15: Designing Frame-Based Expert Systems ◆ Chapter 18: Knowledge Engineering
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Material [Jackson 1999] ◆ Chapter 14, 15: Constructive Problem Solving ◆ Chapter 16: Designing for Explanation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Material [Sommerville 2001] ◆ Chapter 3: Software processes ◆ waterfall model ◆ evolutionary development ❖ spiral model ◆ formal methods ◆ reuse-based methods ◆ Chapter 8: Software prototyping ◆ rapid prototyping techniques
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Logistics ◆ Introductions ◆ Course Materials ◆ textbooks (see below) ◆ lecture notes ◆ PowerPoint Slides will be available on my Web page ◆ handouts ◆ Web page ◆ ◆ Term Project ◆ Lab and Homework Assignments ◆ Exams ◆ Grading
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Bridge-In
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Pre-Test
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Motivation ◆ reasons to study the concepts and methods in the chapter ◆ main advantages ◆ potential benefits ◆ understanding of the concepts and methods ◆ relationships to other topics in the same or related courses
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Objectives ◆ regurgitate ◆ basic facts and concepts ◆ understand ◆ elementary methods ◆ more advanced methods ◆ scenarios and applications for those methods ◆ important characteristics ❖ differences between methods, advantages, disadvantages, performance, typical scenarios ◆ evaluate ◆ application of methods to scenarios or tasks ◆ apply ◆ methods to simple problems
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Introduction ES Design ◆ development methods ◆ problem selection ◆ project management ◆ sources of errors
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design ES Development Methods ◆ commercial quality systems require a systematic development approach ◆ ad hoc approaches may be suitable for research prototypes or personal use, but not for widely used or critical systems ◆ some software engineering methods are suitable for the development of expert systems
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Problem Selection ◆ the development of an expert system should be based on a specific problem to be addressed by the system ◆ it should be verified that expert systems are the right paradigm to solve that type of problem ◆ not all problems are amenable to ES-based solutions ◆ availability of resources for the development ◆ experts/expertise ◆ hardware/software ◆ users ◆ sponsors/funds
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Project Management ◆ activity planning ◆ planning, scheduling, chronicling, analysis ◆ product configuration management ◆ product management ◆ change management ◆ resource management ◆ need determination ◆ acquisition resources ◆ assignment of responsibilities ◆ identification of critical resources
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design ES Development Stages ◆ feasibility study ◆ paper-based explanation of the main idea(s) ◆ no implementation ◆ rapid prototype ◆ quick and dirty implementation of the main idea(s) ◆ refined system ◆ in-house verification by knowledge engineers, experts ◆ field test ◆ system tested by selected end users ◆ commercial quality system ◆ deployed to a large set of end users ◆ maintenance and evolution ◆ elimination of bugs ◆ additional functionalities
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Error Sources in ES Development ◆ knowledge errors ◆ semantic errors ◆ syntax errors ◆ inference engine errors ◆ inference chain errors ◆ limits of ignorance errors
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Knowledge Errors ◆ problem: knowledge provided by the expert is incorrect or incomplete ◆ reflection of expert’s genuine belief ◆ omission of important aspects ◆ inadequate formulation of the knowledge by the expert ◆ consequences ◆ existing solution not found ◆ wrong conclusions ◆ remedy ◆ validation and verification of the knowledge ❖ may be expensive
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Semantic Errors ◆ problem: the meaning of knowledge is not properly communicated ◆ knowledge engineer encodes rules that do not reflect what the domain expert stated ◆ expert misinterprets questions from the knowledge engineer ◆ consequences ◆ incorrect knowledge, inappropriate solutions, solutions not found ◆ remedy ◆ formalized protocol for knowledge elicitation ◆ validation of the knowledge base by domain experts
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Syntax Errors ◆ problem: rules or facts do not follow the syntax required by the tool used ◆ knowledge engineer is not familiar with the method/tool ◆ syntax not clearly specified ◆ consequences ◆ knowledge can’t be used ◆ solutions ◆ syntax checking and debugging tools in the ES development environment
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Inference Engine Errors ◆ problem: malfunctions in the inference component of the expert system ◆ bugs ◆ resource limitations ❖ e.g. memory ◆ consequences ◆ system crash ◆ incorrect solutions ◆ existing solutions not found ◆ remedy ◆ validation and verification of the tools used
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Inference Chain Errors ◆ problem: although each individual inference step may be correct, the overall conclusion is incorrect or inappropriate ◆ causes: errors listed above; inappropriate priorities of rules, interactions between rules, uncertainty, non- monotonicity ◆ consequences ◆ inappropriate conclusions ◆ remedy ◆ formal validation and verification ◆ use of a different inference method
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Limits of Ignorance Errors ◆ problem: the expert system doesn’t know what it doesn’t know ◆ human experts usually are aware of the limits of their expertise ◆ consequences ◆ inappropriate confidence in conclusions ◆ incorrect conclusions ◆ remedy ◆ meta-reasoning methods that explore the limits of the knowledge available to the ES
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Expert Systems and Software Engineering ◆ software process models ◆ waterfall ◆ spiral ◆ use of SE models for ES development ◆ ES development models ◆ evolutionary model ◆ incremental model ◆ spiral model
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Generic Software Process Models ◆ waterfall model ◆ separate and distinct phases of specification and development ◆ evolutionary development ◆ specification and development are interleaved ◆ formal systems development ◆ a mathematical system model is formally transformed to an implementation ◆ reuse-based development ◆ the system is assembled from existing components [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Waterfall Model [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Suitability of Software Models for ES Development ◆ the following worksheets help with the evaluation of software models for use in the development of expert systems ◆ identify the key differences between conventional software development and ES development ❖ with respect to a specific model ◆ what are the positive and negative aspects of the model for ES development ◆ evaluate the above issues, and give the model a score ❖ 10 for perfectly suited, 0 for completely unsuitable ◆ determine the overall suitability ❖ high, medium low ❖ explanation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design AspectEvaluationScore key differences positive negative Waterfall Worksheet ◆ overall suitability: high medium low ◆ explanation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Evolutionary Development ◆ exploratory development ◆ objective is to work with customers and to evolve a final system from an initial outline specification. should start with well-understood requirements ◆ throw-away prototyping ◆ objective is to understand the system requirements. should start with poorly understood requirements [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Evolutionary Development [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design AspectEvaluationScore key differences positive negative Evolutionary Dev. Worksheet ◆ overall suitability: high medium low ◆ explanation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design[Sommerville 2001] Incremental Development ◆ development and delivery is broken down into increments ◆ each increment delivers part of the required functionality ◆ user requirements are prioritised ◆ the highest priority requirements are included in early increments ◆ once the development of an increment is started, the requirements are frozen ◆ requirements for later increments can continue to evolve
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Incremental Development [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Spiral Development ◆ process is represented as a spiral rather than as a sequence of activities with backtracking ◆ each loop in the spiral represents a phase in the process. ◆ no fixed phases such as specification or design ❖ loops in the spiral are chosen depending on what is required ◆ risks are explicitly assessed and resolved throughout the process ◆ similar to incremental development [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Spiral Model Sectors ◆ for quadrants in the coordinate system represent specific aspects ◆ objective setting ❖ specific objectives for the phase are identified ◆ risk assessment and reduction ❖ risks are assessed and activities put in place to reduce the key risks ◆ development and validation ❖ a development model for the system is chosen which can be any of the generic models ◆ planning ❖ the project is reviewed and the next phase of the spiral is planned [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Spiral Model next phase Integration and test plan Development plan Requirements plan Life-cycle plan REVIEW [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design AspectEvaluationScore key differences positive negative Spiral Model Worksheet ◆ overall suitability: high medium low ◆ explanation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Formal systems development ◆ based on the transformation of a mathematical specification through different representations to an executable program ◆ transformations are ‘correctness-preserving’ ◆ it is straightforward to show that the program conforms to its specification ◆ embodied in the ‘cleanroom’ approach to software development [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Formal Transformation Model [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design AspectEvaluationScore key differences positive negative Formal Transformations Worksheet ◆ overall suitability: high medium low ◆ explanation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Reuse-Oriented Development ◆ based on systematic reuse ◆ systems are integrated from existing components or COTS (commercial-off-the-shelf) systems ◆ process stages ◆ component analysis ◆ requirements modification ◆ system design with reuse ◆ development and integration ◆ this approach is becoming more important but still limited experience with it [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Reuse-oriented development [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design AspectEvaluationScore key differences positive negative Reuse-Oriented Model Worksheet ◆ overall suitability: high medium low ◆ explanation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Generic System Design Process [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design System Evolution [Sommerville 2001]
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Linear Model of ES Development ◆ the life cycle repeats a sequence of stages ◆ variation of the incremental model ◆ once iteration of the sequence roughly corresponds to one circuit in the spiral model ◆ stages ◆ planning ◆ knowledge definition ◆ knowledge design ◆ code & checkout ◆ knowledge verification ◆ system evaluation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Linear Model Diagram Planning Source Identification & Selection Acquisition Analysis & Extraction Definition Detailed Design Code & Checkout Formal Test Analysis System Evaluation Knowledge Definition Knowledge Design Knowledge Verification Knowledge Baseline Design Baseline Product Baseline Work Plan Knowledge Review Knowl. System Design Review Test Audit Review Final / Intermed. Review Prelim. Data Review Test Readiness Review
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Planning ◆ feasibility assessment ◆ resource management ◆ task phasing ◆ schedules ◆ high-level requirements ◆ preliminary functional layout
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Knowledge Definition ◆ knowledge source identification and selection ◆ source identification ◆ source importance ◆ source availability ◆ source selection ◆ knowledge acquisition, analysis and extraction ◆ acquisition strategy ◆ knowledge element identification ◆ knowledge classification system ◆ detailed functional layout ◆ preliminary control flow ◆ preliminary user’s manual ◆ requirements specifications ◆ knowledge baseline
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Knowledge Design ◆ knowledge definition ◆ knowledge representation ◆ detailed control structure ◆ internal fact structure ◆ preliminary user interface ◆ initial test plan ◆ detailed design ◆ design structure ◆ implementation strategy ◆ detailed user interface ◆ design specifications and report ◆ detailed test plan
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Code & Checkout ◆ coding ◆ tests ◆ source listings ◆ user manuals ◆ installation and operations guide ◆ system description document
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Knowledge Verification ◆ formal tests ◆ test procedures ◆ test reports ◆ test analysis ◆ results evaluation ◆ recommendations
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design System Evaluation ◆ results evaluation ◆ summarized version of the activity from the previous stage ◆ recommendations ◆ as above ◆ validation ◆ system conforms to user requirements and user needs ◆ interim or final report
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Linear Model Exercise ◆ apply the linear model to your team project ◆ map activities, tasks, milestones and deliverables that you have identified to the respective stages in the linear model ◆ use the linear model to sketch a rough timeline that involves two iterations ❖ first prototype ❖ final system ◆ estimate the overhead needed for the application of the linear model in our context
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design AspectEvaluationScore key differences positive negative Linear Model Worksheet ◆ overall suitability: high medium low ◆ explanation
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Post-Test
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Evaluation ◆ Criteria
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Important Concepts and Terms ◆ evolutionary development ◆ expert system (ES) ◆ expert system shell ◆ explanation ◆ feasibility study ◆ inference ◆ inference mechanism ◆ If-Then rules ◆ incremental development ◆ knowledge ◆ knowledge acquisition ◆ knowledge base ◆ knowledge-based system ◆ knowledge definition ◆ knowledge design ◆ knowledge representation ◆ knowledge verification ◆ limits of ignorance ◆ linear model ES life cycle ◆ maintenance ◆ rapid prototyping ◆ reasoning ◆ rule ◆ semantic error ◆ software development life cycle ◆ spiral development ◆ syntactic error ◆ waterfall model
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design Summary Expert System Design ◆ the design and development of knowledge-based systems uses similar methods and techniques as software engineering ◆ some modifications are necessary ◆ the linear model of ES development is an adaptation of the incremental SE model ◆ possible sources of errors are ◆ knowledge and limits of knowledge errors ◆ syntactical and semantical errors ◆ inference engine and inference chain errors
© Franz J. Kurfess Expert System Design
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