Presentation on theme: "The river from source to mouth Over the period of the next few lessons you will understand how a river changes from source to mouth and include this information."— Presentation transcript:
The river from source to mouth Over the period of the next few lessons you will understand how a river changes from source to mouth and include this information on the diagram.
Predict… How do you think the river will change as it flows from source to mouth?
The upper course of a river Aim: To understand what the upper course of a river is like
A River's Upper Course (Youth) Aim: To understand what the upper course of a river is like
Processes of river erosion Hydraulic action Attrition Corrosion Abrasion
Definitions Hydraulic Action This process involves the force of water against the bed and banks. Abrasion/Corrasion This is the process by which the bed and banks are worn down by the river’s load. The river throws these particles against the bed and banks, sometimes at high velocity. Attrition Material (the load) carried by the river bump into each other and so are smoothed and broken down into smaller particles. Corrosion This is the chemical action of river water. The acids in the water slowly dissolve the bed and the banks.
Do you know your processes of erosion?
Watch the video of the upper course of a river…. When complete you will be undertaking the following activities: 1.Describe the upper course of the river? 2.What makes the upper course of the river an ideal place for the source? 3.Complete paragraph and fill in missing gaps.
What are the main processes that operate in the upper course? What landforms occur in the upper course of a river? How are the landforms created? Learning objectives
river disappears from view hidden by this spur of land River Conwy (near Mignant Moor) Landforms in the upper course V-shaped valleys and interlocking spurs Rapids Waterfalls
Why do V-shaped valleys occur?
Interlocking spurs In the upper course the river does not have a huge amount of energy to erode as it does not have a high discharge and it has to transport large pieces of sediment. When the river meets areas of harder rock that are difficult to erode it winds around them. A series of hills form on either side of the river called spurs. As the river flows around these hills they become interlocked. So, a series of interlocking spurs are often found in the upper course of a river valley.
Techniques! – 1. Fieldsketching…. Produce an annotated fieldsketch to show that this is part of an upland river valley.
Waterfalls! Seljalandsfoss, SW Iceland
How does a waterfall form? Rearrange the stages of formation into the correct order:
Draw and annotate a diagram to explain the formation of a waterfall. Suggested labels: 1.More resistant rock 2.Less resistant rock 3.Plunge Pool 4.Unsupported rock 5.Fallen rocks 6.Gorge Your labels should contain detailed explanations! Waterfalls
PLUNGE POOL UNDERCUTTING OF SOFT ROCK OVERHANG WATERFALL RETREATS.. UPSTREAM..
21 River load in upper course Why are they rounded?
22 River load in upper course Boulders are large and semi-rounded, due to attrition within the load and abrasion with the stream bed and banks Why are they rounded?
Finished questions? Start your diagram completing the features for the upper course of the river.