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Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 16 HCI PROCESS AND Methodologies Virtual University Human-Computer Interaction
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 2 © Imran Hussain | UMT In the Last Lecture HCI Process and Methodologies Problems with digital devices and products Significance of process Key factors to be consider Quality and Usability Usability in process Evolution of software development process Design Difference between interface design and interaction design
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 3 © Imran Hussain | UMT In Today’s Lecture Life-cycle Models for Interactive systems –Waterfall Model –Spiral Model –RAD Model –Star Life-cycle Model –Usability engineering Model –Goal Directed Model
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 4 © Imran Hussain | UMT Design Approach Iterative and incremental approach towards design
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 5 © Imran Hussain | UMT Lifecycle Models Software lifecycle model consists of different stages and phases from start to completion.
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 6 © Imran Hussain | UMT Various Models for SW Lifecyles “Historical Models” –Waterfall model –Spiral model Government Standards –DoD standards: 2167, 2167A –FAA standard DO-178A, DO-178B Corporate “Standards” or common practices –Many companies define their own. –Perhaps using: Unified Process (was the Rational U.P.) Extreme Programming
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 7 © Imran Hussain | UMT Why Learn About Process Now? There are general principles of about: –What we do at various stages of SW development –How to inject quality into SW –How to avoid early problems that cause huge problems later –Recognize that SE is not just writing code
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 8 © Imran Hussain | UMT Waterfall Model Early, simple model –Do the phases shown before, in order –Complete one phase before moving on to the next –Produce a document that defines what to do at the start of each phase –At end of each stage, a document or other work-product is produced: requirements doc, design doc, code, etc. –Little or no iteration (going back to previous phase) The order of phases/stages is generally “right”, but… –Following the waterfall precisely is not effective in real development practice.
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 9 © Imran Hussain | UMT Traditional ‘Waterfall’ Lifecycle Requirements analysis Design Code Test Maintenance
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 10 © Imran Hussain | UMT Traditional ‘Waterfall’ Lifecycle Requirements analysis Design Code Test Maintenance
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 11 © Imran Hussain | UMT Activities in the Life Cycle Requirements specification –Designer and customer try capture what the system is expected to provide can be expressed in natural language or more precise languages, such as a task analysis would provide Architectural design –High-level description of how the system will provide the services required factor system into major components of the system and how they are interrelated needs to satisfy both functional and non-functional requirements Detailed design Refinement of architectural components and interrelations to identify modules to be implemented separately the refinement is governed by the non-functional requirements
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 12 © Imran Hussain | UMT Flaws of the Waterfall Need iteration and feedback –Things change (especially requirements) –Change late requires change in earlier results –Often need to do something multiple times, in stages As described, it’s very rigid –Not realistic to freeze results after each phase The model does not emphasize important issues –Risk management –Prototyping –Quality
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 13 © Imran Hussain | UMT A Lifecycle for RAD (Rapid Applications Development) JAD workshops Project set-up Iterative design and build Engineer and test final prototype Implementation review
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 14 © Imran Hussain | UMT Spiral Model (Barry Boehm) Important features: —Risk analysis —Prototyping —Iterative framework allowing ideas to be checked and evaluated —Explicitly encourages alternatives to be considered —Good for large and complex projects but not simple ones
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 15 © Imran Hussain | UMT Spiral Lifecycle Model
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 16 © Imran Hussain | UMT Features of Win Win Spiral Model Identification of stakeholders Stakeholder includes user Win condition of each stakeholder was specified
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 17 © Imran Hussain | UMT HCI in the Software Process Software engineering and the design process for interactive systems Usability engineering Iterative design and prototyping Design rationale
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 18 © Imran Hussain | UMT The Software Lifecycle Software engineering is the discipline for understanding the software design process, or life cycle Designing for usability occurs at all stages of the life cycle, not as a single isolated activity
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 19 © Imran Hussain | UMT A Simple Interaction Design Model Evaluate (Re)Design Identify needs/ establish requirements Build an interactive version Final product Exemplifies a user-centered design approach
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 20 © Imran Hussain | UMT The Star Lifecycle Model Suggested by Hartson and Hix (1989 ) Important features: —Evaluation at the centre of activities —No particular ordering of activities. Development may start in any one —Derived from empirical studies of interface designers
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 21 © Imran Hussain | UMT The Star Model (Hartson and Hix, 1989) Evaluation Conceptual/ formal design Requirements specification Prototyping task/functional analysis Implementation
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 22 © Imran Hussain | UMT Usability Engineering Lifecycle Model Reported by Deborah Mayhew Important features : –Holistic view of usability engineering –Provides links to software engineering approaches, e.g. OOSE –Stages of identifying requirements, designing, evaluating, prototyping –Can be scaled down for small projects –Uses a style guide to capture a set of usability goals
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 23 © Imran Hussain | UMT Usability Engineering Lifecycle Model Word document is provided for the figure required at this page
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 24 © Imran Hussain | UMT Goal-directed Design Product Desirability Capability Viability
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 25 © Imran Hussain | UMT User Model 1.Context Historical Social Economic 2.User Demographics Psychographics Technographics 3.Values 4.Goals 5.scenarios User Plan 1.Design 2. schedule 3.Form and behavior spec Technology Model 1.Technology components 2.Competitors 3.Build vs buy buy vs open source Business Model 1.Funding model 2.Income/expense projections etc. Business Plan 1.Marketing plan 2.Launch plan 3.Distribution plan Probability of customer Adoption (once the product Has launched) Probability of Sustaining business (up to launch and Long enough after to build revenue) Probability of Technical completion (delivery) Overall probability Of product success
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 26 © Imran Hussain | UMT User Research Qualitative nature –Market Research and Market segmentation –Market research gives user survey data. Quantitative data is useful for selling a product but not useful for providing information how people use the product.
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 27 © Imran Hussain | UMT Gap between user research and ultimate design solution
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 28 © Imran Hussain | UMT Reason for Gap Goal-directed methods are not being used
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 29 © Imran Hussain | UMT Goals of users Needs of business Constraints of technology
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 30 © Imran Hussain | UMT Research is carried out by researchers instead of designers
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 31 © Imran Hussain | UMT Goal-directed Design Research User and the domain Modeling Users and use context Requirements Definition of user, business& technical needs Framework Definition of design structure & flow Refinement Of behavior, form& content
Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 32 © Imran Hussain | UMT Development Stages InitiateDesignCodeTest Ship
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