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Project management l Organising, planning and scheduling software projects l Objectives To introduce software project management and to describe its distinctive characteristics To discuss project planning and the planning process To show how graphical schedule representations are used by project management To discuss the notion of risks and the risk management process

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Terminology l Milestones Have a duration of zero Identify critical points in your schedule Shown as inverted triangle or a diamond Often used at “review” or “delivery” times Or at end or beginning of phases Ex: Software Requirements Review (SRR) Ex: User Sign-off Can be tied to contract terms

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Terminology Example Milestones

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Waterfall Model: Analysis Phase I1:Open I2:Open I3:Open A.I1:Open A.I2:Open SD.I1:Open SD.I2:Open SD.I3:Open Analysis

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Waterfall Model: Design Phase I1:Closed I2:Closed I3:Open A.I1:Open A.I2:Open SD.I1:Open SD.I2:Open SD.I3:Open Analysis Design Analysis

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Waterfall Model: Implementation Phase I1:Closed I2:Closed I3:Closed A.I1:Closed A.I2:Closed SD.I1:Open SD.I2:Open SD.I3:Open Implementation Design Analysis

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Waterfall Model: Project is Done I1:Closed I2:Closed I3:Closed A.I1:Closed A.I2:Closed SD.I1:Open SD.I2:Open SD.I3:Open Implementation Design Analysis

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Issue-Based Model: Analysis Phase I1:Open I2:Open I3:Open A.I1:Open A.I2:Open SD.I1:Open SD.I2:Open SD.I3:Open Analysis:80 % Design: 10% Implemen- tation: 10%

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Issue-Based Model: Design Phase I1:Closed I2:Closed I3:Open A.I1:Open A.I2:Open SD.I1:Open SD.I2:Open SD.I3:Open Analysis:40 % Design: 60% Implemen- tation: 0%

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Issue-Based Model: Implementation Phase I1:Open I2:Closed I3:Closed A.I1:Open A.I2:Closed SD.I1:Open SD.I2:Cosed SD.I3:Open Analysis:10 % Design: 10% Implemen- tation: 60%

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Issue-Based Model: Project is Done I1:Closed I2:Closed I3:Closed A.I1:Closed A.I2:Closed SD.I1:Closed SD.I2:Closed SD.I3:Closed Analysis:0 % Design: 0% Implemen- tation: 0%

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l Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time within the budget in accordance with the requirements l Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints Set by the development organisation or the customer Software project management

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Project staffing l May not be possible to appoint the ideal people to work on a project l Managers have to work within these constraints especially when (as is currently the case) there is an international shortage of skilled IT staff

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Project planning l Probably the most time-consuming project management activity l Continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery l Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available Beware of grumbling developers l Various different types of plan may be developed to support the main software project plan that is concerned with schedule and budget

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Types of project plan

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Activity organization l Activities in a project should be organised to produce tangible outputs for management to judge progress l Milestones are the end-point of a process activity l Deliverables are project results delivered to customers

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Project scheduling l Split project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task l Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce l Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete l Dependent on project managers’ intuition and experience

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Task durations and dependencies

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Activity timeline – Gantt chart

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MS-Project Example

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Staff allocation

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Software risks

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PERT l Program Evaluation and Review Technique l Based on idea that estimates are uncertain Therefore uses duration ranges And the probability of falling to a given range l Uses an “expected value” (or weighted average) to determine durations l Use the following methods to calculate the expected durations, then use as input to your network diagram

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PERT l Start with 3 estimates Optimistic Would likely occur 1 time in 20 Most likely Modal value of the distribution Pessimistic Would be exceeded only one time in 20

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PERT Formula l Combined to estimate a task duration

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PERT Formula l Confidence Interval can be determined l Based on a standard deviation of the expected time Using a bell curve (normal distribution) l For the whole critical path use

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PERT Example l Confidence interval for P2 is 4 times wider than P1 for a given probability l Ex: 68% probability of 9.7 to 11.7 days (P1) vs. 9.5-13.5 days (P2) DescriptionPlanner 1Planner 2 m10d a9d b12d20d PERT time10.16d11.5d Std. Dev.0.5d1.8d

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PERT l Advantages Accounts for uncertainty l Disadvantages Time and labor intensive Assumption of unlimited resources is big issue Lack of functional ownership of estimates Mostly only used on large, complex project l Get PERT software to calculate it for you

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The risk management process l Risk identification – Identify project, product and business risks l Risk analysis – Assess the likelihood and consequences of risks l Risk planning – Draw up plans to avoid/minimise risk effects l Risk monitoring – Monitor the risks throughout the project

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Risk identification l Technology risks l People risks l Organisational risks l Requirements risks l Estimation risks

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Risks and risk types

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Risk analysis l Assess probability and seriousness of each risk l Probability may be very low low moderate high very high l Risk effects might be catastrophic serious tolerable insignificant

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Risk analysis

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Risk planning l Consider each risk and develop a strategy to manage that risk l Avoidance strategies The probability that the risk will arise is reduced l Minimisation strategies The impact of the risk on the project or product will be reduced l Contingency plans If the risk arises, contingency plans are plans to deal with that risk

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Risk planning strategies

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Risk factors

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©Ian Sommerville 2000Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 4 Slide 1 Chapter 4 Project Management “…a huge topic.” See Part 6, “Management”, Chaps.

©Ian Sommerville 2000Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 4 Slide 1 Chapter 4 Project Management “…a huge topic.” See Part 6, “Management”, Chaps.

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