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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 26 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 26 The Upper Course of a River © Boardworks Ltd 2005
2 of 26 What are the main processes that operate in the upper course? What landforms occur in the upper course of a river? How are the landforms created? Learning objectives
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 3 of 26 Processes of river erosion Study this photo. How do you think this river can erode the landscape? Erosion is the wearing away of the land.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 4 of 26 Processes of river erosion Hydraulic action Attrition Corrosion Abrasion
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 5 of 26 Definitions Hydraulic Action This process involves the force of water against the bed and banks. Abrasion/Corrasion This is the process by which the bed and banks are worn down by the river’s load. The river throws these particles against the bed and banks, sometimes at high velocity. Attrition Material (the load) carried by the river bump into each other and so are smoothed and broken down into smaller particles. Corrosion This is the chemical action of river water. The acids in the water slowly dissolve the bed and the banks.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 6 of 26 Do you know your processes of erosion?
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 7 of 26 What are the main processes that operate in the upper course? What landforms occur in the upper course of a river? How are the landforms created? Learning objectives
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 8 of 26 river disappears from view hidden by this spur of land River Conwy (near Mignant Moor) Landforms in the upper course V-shaped valleys and interlocking spurs Rapids Waterfalls
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 9 of 26 What are the main processes that operate in the upper course? What landforms occur in the upper course of a river? How are the landforms created? Learning objectives
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 10 of 26 Why do V-shaped valleys occur?
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 11 of 26 Interlocking spurs In the upper course the river does not have a huge amount of energy to erode as it does not have a high discharge and it has to transport large pieces of sediment. When the river meets areas of harder rock that are difficult to erode it winds around them. A series of hills form on either side of the river called spurs. As the river flows around these hills they become interlocked. So, a series of interlocking spurs are often found in the upper course of a river valley.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 12 of 26 Techniques! – 1. Fieldsketching…. Produce an annotated fieldsketch to show that this is part of an upland river valley.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 13 of 26 2. OS Maps Identify v-shaped valleys and spurs of land.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 14 of 26 Waterfalls! Seljalandsfoss, SW Iceland
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 15 of 26 Waterfall formation
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 16 of 26 Waterfalls
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 17 of 26 How does a waterfall form? Rearrange the stages of formation into the correct order:
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 18 of 26 Draw and annotate a diagram to explain the formation of a waterfall. Suggested labels: 1.More resistant rock 2.Less resistant rock 3.Plunge Pool 4.Unsupported rock 5.Fallen rocks 6.Gorge Your labels should contain detailed explanations! Waterfalls
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 19 of 26 An example of a waterfall – Gulfoss, Iceland
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 20 of 26 Gulfoss is located in Southwest Iceland on the Huita River. Gulfoss has two ‘steps’ to its waterfall. These steps are made by basalt lava while the rocks between these layers are softer, sedimentary rocks. Its gorge is 70m deep and 3 km long! Gulfoss
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 21 of 26 plunge pool grey basalt conglomerate tillite sandstone mudstone Which of these different rocks do you think is the most resistant? The geology of Gulfoss is more complex!
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 22 of 26 What are rapids and how do they form? Rapids are formed due to a sudden steepening of the stream gradient, but without a sufficient break in slope to form a waterfall, or from the river flowing over a series of thin layers of hard and soft rock. Rapids are part of a river where the water is relatively shallow but the flow of the water is quite fast and turbulent as the water descends over a series of small steps. River Rhône
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 23 of 26 Rapids
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 24 of 26 Examination question X Y Study the map of a river valley below: Sketch a cross-section of the river valley from X to Y. Label two features of this river valley. State at what stage of a river’s course you would expect to find this type of valley. Give reasons for your answer. Height (m) XY
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 25 of 26 What do you know about upland river valleys?
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 26 of 26 Key ideas Erosion is the main process operating in the upper course of a river. The direction of erosion is vertical. There are four main types of erosion – hydraulic action, attrition, abrasion and corrosion. Valleys are v-shaped with interlocking spurs. Waterfalls are formed where a river meets a band of less resistant rock. Plunge pools and gorges are features associated with the formation of waterfalls. Rapids are smaller scale features formed where finer bands of varying resistance of rock are found.
The river from source to mouth Over the period of the next few lessons you will understand how a river changes from source to mouth and include this information.
St. Michael’s RC School The Upper Course of a River.
What are the main processes that operate in the upper course? What landforms occur in the upper course of a river? How are the landforms created? Learning.
How do river landforms in the upper course of a river form?
Bellwork Using the Horton-Strahler technique (as demonstrated below), label the tributaries on your worksheet.
SPECIFICATION TARGET: to be able to explain the impact of weathering, erosion and mass movement on river landscapes.
© Boardworks Ltd of 34 River landforms in the Middle and Lower course Aim: To understand how meanders form in the middle section and ox bow lakes,
High Force Reservoir LO: To describe the formation of a waterfall and gorge using High Force as an exemplar.
Fluvial landforms : Upper course Landforms of erosion: -V-shaped valley and interlocking spurs -Rapids and waterfalls -Potholes Landform of deposition:
© Boardworks Ltd of 34 These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the.
Fluvial landforms (1) Landforms of erosion: -V-shaped valley and interlocking spurs -Rapids and waterfalls -Potholes Landform of deposition: -Braided channels.
Erosional and depositional river landscapes LS: Apply knowledge of Erosional processes to understand how erosion forms river landscapes. Describe the formation.
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
Rivers. Common River Terms Source – The place where a river begins. Course – The route the river takes to the sea Tributary – A small river that joins.
Landforms of an Upland River R. TEES Source R USK Source.
The long profile of a river. Upper course The characteristics of a river and its valley found in this course include vertical erosion, lakes, waterfalls,
River features – Upstream portion River Channel: small, narrow, rough and usually shallow. When rivers have to flow round obstacles of hard rocks in its.
River processes Learning objectives: 1.Understand the different types of weathering 2.Know what mass movement is 3.Understand the different types of erosion.
© Boardworks Ltd of 26 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the.
River Systems. A river system is an open system. An open system has inputs, processes and outputs. So unlike water in the hydrological cycle, where there.
You need to know that weathering involves the breakdown of rock in situ and how it is different to erosion Weathering: Rocks that are exposed to air,
Aim: To develop a knowledge and understanding of Rivers in the landscape By the end of the lesson I should know: New terminology for important parts of.
Lesson 3 – page 3. To learn what is erosion: Abrasion Hydraulic action Attrition Solution To learn what is transportation: Traction Saltation.
Unit 2: River Landscapes How are Waterfalls formed?
Rivers: Profiles & Landforms Higher Geography The Hydrosphere.
Think (20 secs) Pair (40 secs) Share (as a class) C F A BD E 1. Match up the aerial photo with the land photo 2. Put them in the right order.
1 River features? Are facial features the same thing for rivers?
Rivers Chapter 7. Start on high, Flow down low, Creating features As they flow!
The Hydrological (Water) Cycle The River System – the drainage basin. A river system is an open system. An open system has inputs, processes and outputs.
What affects a river’s discharge? 27 th April 2015 U: how a flood hydrograph can show how a river responds to a rainstorm K: Revise the landforms of a.
WHAT CAN YOU REMEMBER? land ocean 4) _________ 5) __________ 1) ________ 2) _________ 3) _________ 6) ________.
Part 2 Quit Landforms and exogenetic processes 2.2 How can a river change the land?
Stages of a River Stage:Upper Course 1. Source Waterfall 3. V-shaped valley 4. Steep sided valley 5. Interlocking spur.
On your white board pick any 6 of the following words: Starter: Geography BingoSourceMouthConfluenceTributaryEstuaryMeanderWatershedFloodplain Drainage.
River landscapes and processes Geography CCEA GCSE 2009.
Higher Hydrosphere The Upper Course Areas with steep gradients will have an increased velocity and so the potential for erosion is higher, especially vertical.
Longitudinal profile Fluvial/River- Areas The path the river follows from its source to mouth is known as the river's course. When studying rivers we.
Robert Mckeegan Jonathon Knox James Hennessy. References: Essential As Geography (Stanley Thrones) Geography in Focus Encarta Premium Google Images (France)
Rivers Location Profiles Processes Landforms Thames Spey Clyde Shannon Tees Ouse Tay Severn Trent Forth Main UK.
Rivers. Long Profile Height above sea level in meters Distance from sea in Kms. Source. Upland stream. Lowland.
© Boardworks Ltd of 25 Geology. © Boardworks Ltd of 25 Most slides contain notes to accompany the presentation. This icon indicates that.
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 Coastal Processes and Landforms.
River Environments Rivers have become regular features in the news. In any given year, one or more rivers become notorious for their devastating floods.
The Upper Course of a river V shaped valleys. Explain the formation of a v-shaped valley (4 marks with extra space)
Earthshapes Unit RIVERS Vincent Raeburn Linlithgow Academy
The Changes downstream in a river valley in a river valley RIVER STUDIES.
HYDROSPHERE Rivers processes, profiles and landforms.
A Presentation By Noah Brown Waterfalls. Main Features Hard Resistant Cap Rock Overhang Plunge Pool Curved (Undercut) or Straight Back Wall Knick Points.
Why is the weather so bad at the moment?. BY THE END OF THE LESSON YOU WILL; 1) BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE HOW DIFFERENT FACTORS WILL AFFECT THE FLOOD HYDROGRAPH.
Erosion and Deposition
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