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Software Development Life-Cycle Models. An Effective Software Development Process Is written down Is followed Is actively managed –The process is dynamic.

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Presentation on theme: "Software Development Life-Cycle Models. An Effective Software Development Process Is written down Is followed Is actively managed –The process is dynamic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Software Development Life-Cycle Models

2 An Effective Software Development Process Is written down Is followed Is actively managed –The process is dynamic –Its effectiveness is measured regularly –Measurement results are used to improve the process

3 The Waterfall Model Requirements Analysis Software Design Coding Testing Maintenance

4 Advantages of the Waterfall Model Easy to understand Widely used Reinforces notions of “define before design” and “design before code” Establishes milestones (when deliverables are produced and when reviews take place)

5 Disadvantages of the Waterfall Model Not realistic (doesn’t match real projects) Does not reflect the iterative nature of software Complete set requirements seldom known at the beginning of a project Working software not available until near end of project Does not incorporate risk assessment

6 The Concurrent Development Model Development and QA/Testing are performed concurrently Similar to the Synchronize and Stabilize model used by Microsoft Multiple baselines are included as part of the process SRS evolves over the course of the project Ends with a formal validation phase with defined criteria for starting and stopping

7 Advantages of the Concurrent Development Model It’s flexible – the number incremental releases can be determined by the project team Immediate feedback from testing New features can be added late in the project No surprises during formal validation because testing has been continuous

8 Disadvantages of the Concurrent Development Model The SRS must be continually updated to reflect changes It requires discipline to avoid adding too many new features too late in the project

9 The Rapid Prototyping Model Requirements gathering Quick design Prototype building Prototype evaluation by customers Prototype may be refined Prototype thrown away and software developed using formal process

10 Advantages of the Rapid Prototyping Model Users/customers own requirements Instills customer confidence that the “right” product is being built Provides a good way to determine requirements when there is uncertainty about what is needed

11 Disadvantages of the Rapid Prototyping Model Prototypes are not always thrown away – they often become the products or fundamental parts of the products Requires lots of customer involvement which isn’t always possible Validation may be difficult because the requirements may not be well documented

12 The Spiral Model Planning Risk Analysis Development Evaluation

13 Advantages of the Spiral Model Incorporates the iterative nature of software development Incorporates all the advantages of both the waterfall model and prototyping model

14 Disadvantages of the Spiral Model Requires expertise in risk analysis It is somewhat complicated and not well understood

15 Hybrid Models Combined aspects of two or more models Added flexibility Not usually well understood Have all advantages and disadvantages of the models encompassed

16 Object-Oriented Models Requirements analysis and design tend to be blurred Tend to be iterative in nature Usually incorporate risk management Incorporate requirements management and change control Emphasize the use of visual models (e.g. UML diagrams)

17 Models Based on Agile Methods ASD – Adaptive Software Development Crystal TDD –Test-Driven Development DSDM – Dynamic Systems Development Method Lean Software Development Scrum XP – eXtreme Programming

18 Agile Methods Emphasize Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan

19 “How to Solve It” In 1945 George Polya wrote a book outlining 4 basic steps in problem solving: –Understand the problem (requirements analysis) –Devise a plan (software design and project planning) –Carry out the plan (coding) –Look back (testing the solution)

20 Summary Choosing the right life-cycle model can be difficult But it is essential to have one The life-cycle model covers more than just development – it must be appropriate for product support and maintenance


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