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English 121. Ethos-Credibility/Likeability of the Author Examples that appeal to YOUR audience Share common experience with the audience Personal connection.

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Presentation on theme: "English 121. Ethos-Credibility/Likeability of the Author Examples that appeal to YOUR audience Share common experience with the audience Personal connection."— Presentation transcript:

1 English 121


3 Ethos-Credibility/Likeability of the Author Examples that appeal to YOUR audience Share common experience with the audience Personal connection to the argument Fair consideration of the argument

4 Appeal to LOGIC Definition of key terms

5 Appeal to Logic: Facts

6 Appeal to Logic Numbers and Statistics

7 Appeal to Logic Expert Opinions

8 Appeal to Emotion Narrative Excerpt from Baghdad Burning I first witnessed a raid back in May. The heat was just starting to become unbearable and we were spending the whole night without electricity. I remember lying in my bed, falling in and out of a light sleep. We still weren't sleeping on the roof because the whole night you could hear gunshots and machinegun fire not very far away- the looters still hadn't organized themselves into gangs and mafias. At around 3 am, I distinctly heard the sound of helicopters hovering not far above the area. I ran out of the room and into the kitchen and found E. pressing his face to the kitchen window, trying to get a glimpse of the black sky. "What's going on?!" I asked, running to stand next to him. "I don't know… a raid? But it's not an ordinary raid… there are helicopters and cars, I think…" I stopped focusing on the helicopters long enough to listen to the cars. No, not cars- big, heavy vehicles that made a humming, whining sound. E. and I looked at one another, speechless- tanks?! E. turned on his heel and ran upstairs, taking the steps two at a time. I followed him clumsily, feeling for the banister all the way up, my mind a jumble of thoughts and conjectures.

9 Appeal to Emotion: Vivid Imagery Look at the video here: side-of-mobility.html Think about how you can describe one or more of these images using CONCRETE sensory detail in order to achieve the same result.

10 Finding Balance: Avoid Logical Fallacies View the handout here: ml Keep in mind that emotional appeals can be useful, but a little bit of that goes a long way. Relying too heavily on emotion alone will weaken your argument.

11 What should this look like? Introduction *Adapted from:  INTRODUCTION o 1-2 paragraphs tops o PURPOSE: To set up and state one’s claim  Make your introductory paragraph interesting. How can you draw your readers in?  What background information, if any, do we need to know in order to understand your claim? If you don’t follow this paragraph with a background information paragraph, please insert that info here. o REQUIRED ELEMENTS  If you’re arguing about an issue or theory – provide brief explanation or your of issue/theory.  STATE your claim at the end of your introductory paragraph (THESIS)

12 Sample Introduction *Click on the yellow boxes on the right to see additional comments* When I was a young girl, I would always hear my parents talking about the war and the problems going on in my country, and every day my dad would tell me: “don’t worry, everything is going to be ok, the United Nations have sent some help”! I am turning 19 in a month yet the war is still going on! People are still fleeing, others are being killed, women are being raped, children are taken in to become soldiers … In spite of that, when I watch the news I hear so little about it, so I wonder how many people must be killed or flee their homes so that people abroad understand our problems! I want to raise awareness with this blog; I want every single reader to help refugees across the world, not only in Congo but also across the world.

13 Body Paragraphs *Adapted from:  SUPPORTING EVIDENCE PARAGRAPH #1 o PURPOSE: To prove your argument. Usually is one paragraph but it can be longer. o Topic Sentence: What is one item, fact, detail, or example you can tell your readers that will help them better understand your claim/paper topic? Your answer should be the topic sentence for this paragraph. o Explain Topic Sentence: Do you need to explain your topic sentence? If so, do so here. o Introduce Evidence: Introduce your evidence either in a few words (As Dr. Brown states ―… ‖ ) or in a full sentence (―To understand this issue we first need to look at statistics). o State Evidence: What supporting evidence (reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and/or quotations) can you include to prove/support/explain your topic sentence? o Explain Evidence: How should we read or interpret the evidence you are providing us? How does this evidence prove the point you are trying to make in this paragraph? Can be opinion based and is often at least 1-3 sentences. o Concluding Sentence: End your paragraph with a concluding sentence that reasserts how the topic sentence of this paragraph helps up better understand and/or prove your paper’s overall claim.

14 Sample body paragraph. The most basic law of the market shows us that if a consumer does not need or desire a particular product, they will not buy it. When the sales of particular products are examined it is possible to see that sales of convenience foods are always increasing, whilst sales of basic ingredients are generally decreasing. People buy ready prepared food because it fits into the busy lives that they have chosen to live, where an extra foreign holiday or a new car has become more important than the health and welfare of families. This desire for the trappings of modern life also has other effects on shopping habits. Many families would prefer to have an up to date computer than to buy nutritional, healthy organic food. To have both is only possible for the affluent due to the high cost of organic food in developed nations.

15 Addressing the Opposition: Counterargument Adapted from:  COUNTERARGUMENT PARAGRAPH o PURPOSE: To anticipate your reader’s objections; make yourself sound more objective and reasonable. o Optional; usually 1-2 paragraphs tops o What possible argument might your reader pose against your argument and/or some aspect of your reasoning? Insert one or more of those arguments here and refute them. o End paragraph with a concluding sentence that reasserts your paper’s claim as a whole. **An additional resource for this may be found here:

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