2Week Two Agenda: Review Portfolio Project Writing Prompt (attendance) Special Ed Categories—PowerPointFAT City videoLD SimulationsQuestions/Comments? Discussion
3What is a Learning Disability? A neurological disorderA person’s brain is wired differentlyKids w/ LDs are as smart or smarter than peersA LD can’t be cured or fixed; it’s a lifelong issueWith the right support and intervention, these kids with LDs can succeed in school!
4Facts about Learning Disabilities 15% of the population, or 1 in 7 Americans, have an LDDifficulty w/ basic reading and language skills are most common LDsAs many as 80% of students w/LDs have reading problemsLearning Disabilities often run in familiesLDs should not be confused with other disabilities such as mental retardation, autism, ADHD, etc.
5Students with LDsMust be a severe discrepancy between the student’s ability and achievement.This discrepancy can not be due to emotional impairments, cognitive impairment, cultural disadvantage, etc…
7Common Characteristics of LD Students Short term memoryEasily distractedMay have difficulty copying information from the board/lecturesLack of planning and organizational skillsMay have difficulty expressing themselves verbally or in writingMay be able to do something one day, but not the nextLow self-esteem
8Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder Condition that becomes apparent in some children in preschool and early school yearsHard for these kids to control their behavior and/or pay attention3-5% of kids have ADHD, so in class of it’s likely you’ll have at least one
9Emotional Impairment Manifest problems in the affective domain Behavior problems associated with an EI are:Demonstrated over a period of timeInterfere with educational performanceTo the extent that Spec. Ed. services are needed
10Emotional ImpairmentBehavior problems manifested through one or more of the following characteristics:An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships within the school environmentInappropriate types of behaviors or feelings under normal circumstancesGeneral mood of unhappiness or depressionA tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears in association with personal or school problems
11Autism Spectrum Disorder Wide variation in symptomsSeems to be on the rise, but could be result of improved detectionEarly diagnosis is important
12Asperger’s syndrome Type of pervasive development disorder Involves delays in development of basic skills, namely, ability to socialize, to communicate, & to use imaginationTypically these students will function better than those with AutismChildren w/Asperger’s generally have normal intelligence and near-normal language development, although they may develop problems communicating as they get older
13More on Asperger’s… Problems with social skills Eccentric or repetitive behaviorsUnusual preoccupations or ritualsCommunication difficultiesLimited range of interestsCoordination problemsSkilled or talented
14A few more to mention… Visual Impairment Hearing Impairment Cognitive Impairment
15The “Hidden” Impairment Specific learning disabilities are often called “hidden impairments” because from looking at the person and talking to the person, they appear “normal” (whatever normal is….)The fact that their disability is hidden can actually be a HUGE disadvantage to the child, since others may erroneously think that the child is lazy, not trying, etc…..
16Fair does not equal Same Being fair means providing what each student NEEDS.Being fair does not mean treating everyone the same, since not everyone needs the same things.Giving equal treatment means leveling the playing field so all students have an equal opportunity to grow, learn and be successful.
17LD Instructional Strategies Allow more time for student to complete workBreak assignments up into manageable chunksAllow student to utilize technology (audio books/speech recording software/computer access etc…)Teach using multiple formats that allow each student to learn through their particular learning styleUse mnemonics and other memory tricksModel steps as you teachAllow guided practice before asking student to show mastery independentlyGive SPECIFIC Praise OFTEN!Have consistent routines and proceduresAllow students to correct errors on assignments and tests to ensure mastery and to earn some points backAccept late work – even if only for ½ credit – zeroes KILL
18Learning Disabilities Bottom line = Instructional strategies that are good for special ed students are good for ALL students.Special ed/At-risk/ELL students MAY need more intensive versions of the strategies.
19The BIG Idea You will have special ed students in your classes It is your job to teach them and help them become successful individualsDiversity is good = all will benefitDon't assume you know everything about the student - especially if you weren't that kind of learnerBE FLEXIBLEBE FAIRFair = give what is NEEDEDWhat is good for special ed students is what is good for ALL students
20F.A.T. City VideoA brief introduction to what LD students experience daily to help develop some empathy and understandingUnderstand the reasons for some accommodations
21LD Simulation Activities If you don’t really feel up to it today, or find as you are going that you don’t want to do these activities – TOO BAD!LD students are expected to perform tasks daily that cause them to experience frustrations, anxiety and tension.
22ACTIVITY 1 p d q b Reading and Decoding– how hard can it be? This activity shows what it is like to read as a LD childEven if you can decode something, it doesn’t mean comprehension is there.
23ACTIVITY 2 Perceiving vs. Seeing You can see the picture but you can’t perceive it. You need direct instruction from the teacher.There’s a difference b/w vision and perception. You can see it but you can’t bring meaning to it until I tell you what it is.
24ACTIVITY 3 ORAL EXPRESSION GROUP STORY – Generating Ideas, Thinking of the right words, Organizing and Expressing thoughtsExperience shows how speaking can be a cognitive task for a LD child
25ACTIVITY 4 Auditory and Visual Capabilities What it’s like to be unable to understand something visually but it makes sense when you hear it aloud