# Loads TUTORIAL 2 to answer just click on the button or image related to the answer.

## Presentation on theme: "Loads TUTORIAL 2 to answer just click on the button or image related to the answer."— Presentation transcript:

what is the main force acting on and in buildings? Question 1 wind gravity earthquake

in what direction does gravity act? Question 2 sideways / horizontally vertically down at an angle

Question 3 what do loads do? tend to destabilise structures a tend to overturn structures b tend to break structures c tend to deform structures d all the above e

Question 4 so, the loads want to destroy our structure what must the structure do? provide equilibrium by producing reactions a fight the loads b resist breaking by being strong enough c all of the above d a and c e

Question 6 what are live loads? loads which come on and off (not acting all the time) a loads which can give you a shock b occupants, contents, wind, snow c a and c d

Question 7 what other loads are there? earthquake a load on one’s mind b thermal c settlement d a, c and d e

Question 9 what are the units for a point load? (i.e. a concentrated load) kNm a kN / m b kN c

Question 10 what are the units for a load distributed over a length? kNm a kN / m b kPa c

Question 11 what are the units for a load distributed over an area? kNm 2 a kN / m 2 b kPa c

Question 12 10 kN a in a non-cyclone area, what is the magnitude of the wind loads (approximately)? 10 kPa b 1 kPa c 1 kN d

Question 13 down - push if the roof on a house has a pitch of 27 o what is the direction of the wind load on the roof? up - suction

Question 14 make the roof heavier a For a roof with a pitch less than 30 0 constructed of lightweight materials, weighing 0.3 kPa what considerations would you take into account? brace the roof b make sure the roof is well secured to the building – more, longer nails/bolts c all the above d

next question enough ! the structure itself and everything in it will be subject to gravity

let me try again let me out of here the wind is an important factor but it’s not the main force acting on and in buildings

let me try again let me out of here earthquakes do produce forces but they are not the main force acting on and in buildings

next question enough ! gravity acts downwards (apples fall down) (wait a sec ! - )

let me try again let me out of here (wait a sec ! - )

next question enough ! Yep! Those pesky loads try to do all the above. You’ve got to watch out for them !!

let me try again let me out of here Y… …es, but not quite right

next question enough ! the structure must provide stability and strength. (it must also not deform too much)

let me try again let me out of here but not quite right

let me try again let me out of here have you ever seen structures fight?

let me try again let me out of here I don’t know who is more dead

let me try again let me out of here does that sound dead to you?

next question enough ! that’s right! Loads that come on and off are loads from people, contents and equipment

let me try again let me out of here but not quite right

let me try again let me out of here you were kidding, …. weren’t you?

next question enough !

let me try again let me out of here but not quite right

let me try again let me out of here you were kidding, …. weren’t you?

next question enough ! self-weight is a dead load but we include it explicitly so that we don’t forget

let me try again let me out of here partly right – think again

let me try again let me out of here but not quite right

next question enough ! you’ve got it !!

let me try again let me out of here we are talking about just a force

next question enough ! you’ve got it !!

let me try again let me out of here it’s force distributed over a length

let me try again let me out of here it’s force distributed over a length not an area

next question enough ! 1 kPa = 1 kN per m 2

let me try again let me out of here it’s force distributed over an area

let me try again let me out of here it is correct but we use other units

next question enough ! wind is taken to be distributed over an area so kPa

let me try again let me out of here think again – wind force and how it is applied

let me try again let me out of here that’s a mighty big wind

let me try again let me out of here think again how is the wind applied?

next question enough ! with a slope of < 30 0 the wind causes suction on the entire roof

let me try again let me out of here think again is 27 0 a steep slope or a low slope?

the END ! well done !

let me try again let me out of here that would sort of defeat the purpose, wouldn’t it?

let me try again let me out of here bracing is to resist loads in the plane of the roof, not to stop it lifting off

let me try again let me out of here