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Loads TUTORIAL 2 to answer just click on the button or image related to the answer.

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Presentation on theme: "Loads TUTORIAL 2 to answer just click on the button or image related to the answer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Loads TUTORIAL 2 to answer just click on the button or image related to the answer

2 what is the main force acting on and in buildings? Question 1 wind gravity earthquake

3 in what direction does gravity act? Question 2 sideways / horizontally vertically down at an angle

4 Question 3 what do loads do? tend to destabilise structures a tend to overturn structures b tend to break structures c tend to deform structures d all the above e

5 Question 4 so, the loads want to destroy our structure what must the structure do? provide equilibrium by producing reactions a fight the loads b resist breaking by being strong enough c all of the above d a and c e

6 Question 5 what are dead loads? loads which have died a permanent fixed loads (weight of structure, elements, equipment) b loads which come on and off c

7 Question 6 what are live loads? loads which come on and off (not acting all the time) a loads which can give you a shock b occupants, contents, wind, snow c a and c d

8 Question 7 what other loads are there? earthquake a load on one’s mind b thermal c settlement d a, c and d e

9 Question 8 what makes up the total load on a structure? all dead loads a dead loads + live loads + self-weight b all live loads b

10 Question 9 what are the units for a point load? (i.e. a concentrated load) kNm a kN / m b kN c

11 Question 10 what are the units for a load distributed over a length? kNm a kN / m b kPa c

12 Question 11 what are the units for a load distributed over an area? kNm 2 a kN / m 2 b kPa c

13 Question kN a in a non-cyclone area, what is the magnitude of the wind loads (approximately)? 10 kPa b 1 kPa c 1 kN d

14 Question 13 down - push if the roof on a house has a pitch of 27 o what is the direction of the wind load on the roof? up - suction

15 Question 14 make the roof heavier a For a roof with a pitch less than 30 0 constructed of lightweight materials, weighing 0.3 kPa what considerations would you take into account? brace the roof b make sure the roof is well secured to the building – more, longer nails/bolts c all the above d

16 next question enough ! the structure itself and everything in it will be subject to gravity

17 let me try again let me out of here the wind is an important factor but it’s not the main force acting on and in buildings

18 let me try again let me out of here earthquakes do produce forces but they are not the main force acting on and in buildings

19 next question enough ! gravity acts downwards (apples fall down) (wait a sec ! - )

20 let me try again let me out of here (wait a sec ! - )

21 next question enough ! Yep! Those pesky loads try to do all the above. You’ve got to watch out for them !!

22 let me try again let me out of here Y… …es, but not quite right

23 next question enough ! the structure must provide stability and strength. (it must also not deform too much)

24 let me try again let me out of here but not quite right

25 let me try again let me out of here have you ever seen structures fight?

26 next question enough ! that’s right! Dead loads are loads that are permanent

27 let me try again let me out of here I don’t know who is more dead

28 let me try again let me out of here does that sound dead to you?

29 next question enough ! that’s right! Loads that come on and off are loads from people, contents and equipment

30 let me try again let me out of here but not quite right

31 let me try again let me out of here you were kidding, …. weren’t you?

32 next question enough !

33 let me try again let me out of here but not quite right

34 let me try again let me out of here you were kidding, …. weren’t you?

35 next question enough ! self-weight is a dead load but we include it explicitly so that we don’t forget

36 let me try again let me out of here partly right – think again

37 let me try again let me out of here but not quite right

38 next question enough ! you’ve got it !!

39 let me try again let me out of here we are talking about just a force

40 next question enough ! you’ve got it !!

41 let me try again let me out of here it’s force distributed over a length

42 let me try again let me out of here it’s force distributed over a length not an area

43 next question enough ! 1 kPa = 1 kN per m 2

44 let me try again let me out of here it’s force distributed over an area

45 let me try again let me out of here it is correct but we use other units

46 next question enough ! wind is taken to be distributed over an area so kPa

47 let me try again let me out of here think again – wind force and how it is applied

48 let me try again let me out of here that’s a mighty big wind

49 let me try again let me out of here think again how is the wind applied?

50 next question enough ! with a slope of < 30 0 the wind causes suction on the entire roof

51 let me try again let me out of here think again is 27 0 a steep slope or a low slope?

52 the END ! well done !

53 let me try again let me out of here that would sort of defeat the purpose, wouldn’t it?

54 let me try again let me out of here bracing is to resist loads in the plane of the roof, not to stop it lifting off

55 let me try again let me out of here

56


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