4European Immigration 1. New Immigrants a. Over the course of the 19th century, the sources of immigrants for the United States changed (Old Immigrants = North & Western Europeansb. “New immigrants” came from southern and eastern Europe
6New Immigrants into the US U.S. Immigration Statistics: Origin (in percentages)DecadeTotalNorthern/ W. EuropeEast/Central/ S. EuropeCanada and Latin AmericaAsia2,314,824 87.8 01.4 07.2 02.82,812,191 73.6 14.4 04.45,246,130 72.0 18.2 08.1 01.33,687,546 44.5 51.9 01.1 01.98,795,386 31.7 60.8 04.15,735,811 17.4 58.9 19.9 03.44,107,209 28.7 36.9 02.4
82. Push/Pull Immigration Factors - US Push Factors= factors that cause someone to leave their native countryPull Factors= factors that draw people into a specific countryFarm poverty – (New ag techniques in these European regions removed the need for thousands of farm laborers)Wars & compulsory military servicePolitical tyrannyReligious PersecutionLack of social mobilityRepealed emigration lawsEconomic opportunity (plenty of work, plenty of land)Higher standard of livingDemocratic political systemFreedom of speech/religionSocial mobility !!!Few immigration restrictions (needed workers thanks to industrialization!)
10Those hateful bullies have gone too far Those hateful bullies have gone too far. First they rode through town shouting terrible things about us. Next, they wrecked our synagogue. Now they break into our homes! The police do nothing to stop them. I'm afraid it is time to leave.--Nina, Russia, 1890Push or Pull?Jewish men look at the damage to a building after Russians ransacked their village.
113. The Atlantic Voyage a. difficult, long b. most in steerage: most basic, cheapest accommodations on the ship
134. Ellis Island NYa. Most European immigrants disembarked and were processed at Ellis Islandb. immigrants were subject to a medical exam; provided various documentationc. Families could become separatedRenze Kampstra and family
145. Ethnic Cities – allowed immigrants to adjust to US a. most settled in cities- cheapest housing- most economic opportunities- convenience to transportationb. often lived in neighborhoods separated by ethnic group (see pg 347) = preserved their culturec. Immigrants adjusted well if..- learned English quickly- adapted to American culture- they had marketable skills or $- settled among members of their own ethnic group
15Mulberry Street – New York City’s “Little Italy” c 1900
21B. Asian Immigration 1. Push/Pull Factors behind Asian Immigration Push FactorsPull FactorsCHINESEHigh unemploymentPovertyFamineTaiping Rebellion 1850 – against Chinese gov’t – 20 million dead – thousands flee to USJAPANESEIndustrialization/empire building caused hardshipsDiscovery of Gold in CAJobs with Central Pacific RR (Transcontinental RR)Few immigration restrictions
22a. Modeled after New York’s Ellis Island 2. Angel Islanda. Modeled after New York’s Ellis Islandb. point of entry for the majority of Asian immigrants
23In America, we are all immigrants – or children of immigrants In America, we are all immigrants – or children of immigrants. Do you know where you came from – and when?
24C. Resurgence of Nativism 1. Nativism a. favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign born people and a desire to limit immigrationb. 1840s-50s: focus on Irishc. Late 1800s: focus on Asians, Jews, E. Eur.d. Reasons for opposing immigration- feared influx of Catholics would give Catholic Church too much power in US gov’t- labor union opposition b/c immigrants work for low wages, become strikebreakers – undermine all efforts of unions to achieve higher pay, fewer working hrs, better working conditions
252. Anti-Immigrant Organizations a. American Protective Assoc. - goal to stop Catholic immigrationb. Workingman’s Party of California – goal to stop Chinese immigration3. Anti-immigration lawsa – immigration ban on convicts, paupers, mentally disabled + 50¢ taxb – Chinese Exclusion Act – ban Chinese immigration & prevent Chinese already here from becoming citizens
28The City as a New “Frontier?” New Use of SpaceNew Class DiversityNew Architectural StyleNew EnergyNew Symbols of Change & ProgressThe City as a New “Frontier?”New Culture (“Melting Pot”)Make a New StartNew Form of Classic “Rugged Individualism”New Levels of Crime, Violence, & Corruption
29Americans Migrate to the City 1. Statistics a. 1840: 131 US cities; 1900: 1700 US citiesb. Growth of old cities
302. Immigrants flock to city factories a. Lack $$ to buy farmsb. Lack education for higher-paying jobs3. Standard of living better in USa. Work long hrs for low pay but….b. Social Mobility- Europe: rigid social class system- US: accepted that all could rise in society – possible to move from working class to middle class
323. Rural Americans move to cities a. More jobs, higher payb. More amenities: lights, running water, modern plumbingc. More to do: museum, libraries, theaters
33Home Insurance Building, Chicago, IL B. New Urban Environment1. Skyscrapersa. Thanks to steel, durable plate glass, elevatorsb. Necessity: expensive/scarce land – build up, not outc. NYC = most skyscrapersc.The FirstHome Insurance Building, Chicago, IL
34Louis Sullivan 1856 – 1924 The Chicago School of Architecture Form follows function!
47a. Horsecar 1890 = 70% urban traffic 2. Mass Transita. Horsecar 1890 = 70% urban trafficSo what’s the problem?Horses deposited tons of feces and gallons of urine on the streets every day (each horse = 24 lbs manure/day)A horse could work only part of the day, but would eat all dayA horse car could run all day, but it would require many changes of horsesA line's investment in horses could be wiped out by diseases like the Great Epizootic of 1872.Horses could not pull cars up steep hillsWhen they died, were left on streets to decomposeHistory of the Horsecar
48b. Cable Cars Electric Trolley Car Cable Car - Began in SF - Pulled along tracks by underground cablesc. Electric Trolley Car – Frank J. SpragueElectric Trolley CarCable Car
50d. Relieving Congestion on City Streets - Chicago: Elevated Trains- NYC, Boston: SubwaysChicago’s “EL”NYC’s Subway
51C. Separation by Class 1. High Society a C. Separation by Class 1. High Society a. wealthiest lived in fashionable districts in heart of citiesCarnegie Mansion, NYCPalmer Castle, ChicagoVanderbilt, Chateau, NYC
522. Middle Classa. Growing: Drs, lawyers, engineers, managers, teachers, social workers, architectsb. Salaries 2x that of avg factory workerc. Mass Transit allowed them to work in citycenter and live outside in the “streetcar suburbs”
533. Working Class a. = majority of city dwellers b. Many lived in tenements – dark, crowded multi-family aptsc. Kids sent to work in factoriesd. Rented space to boarders
61D. Urban Problems 1. Hazards of City Life a. crime & violence - nativists blame crime increase on immigrants- in reality, no significant difference in crime rate in immigrant community/native-born community- most likely, the increase in minor/major crimes was due the rapid growth of cities
62The Great Chicago Fire 1871 b. fire! - many wooden structures - lacked technology in fire-fightingThe Great Chicago Fire1871
63c. disease and pollution - improper sewage disposal (bad drinking water); overcrowding; garbage in the streets– leads to cholera and typhoid fever- horse waste left in streets- smoke, soot, and ash from wood and coal burning fires from factories and homes
642. Rise in Consumption of Alcohol a. contributed to rise in crime rate b. Jacob Riis’, How the Other Half Lives, documented affect of alcohol abuse- saloons corrupted politics- brought suffering to wives/children of drunkards- corrupted children – sold to minors
661. Political Machines and the Party Boss E. Urban Politics1. Political Machines and the Party Bossa. Political Machine: An organized group that controls a political party in a city and offers services to voters and biz in exchange for political and financial support1) why? Cities grew faster than gov’t2) city dwellers needed housing, jobs, etc.b. Party bosses (ran machines – often the mayor) exchanged services for votesc. as a result, urban immigrant groups voted for political machines
672. Graft & Fraud – allowed party boss to control cities finances a. graft: obtaining $ through dishonest or questionable meansb. Fraud1) accepted bribes for contracts2) sold permits to friends to operate public utilities (RR, Water)
683. Tammany Hall – NY political machine. a 3. Tammany Hall – NY political machine a. led by corrupt William M “boss” Tweedb. controlled city services, including the police
69Boss TweedBoss William Tweed raised corruption to an art form. As a member of New York’s Tammany Hall, Tweed and his cronies, including Mayor Fernando Wood, ran New York in the Civil War era as their own private money factory. Tweed once bought 300 benches for $5 each, then sold them to the city for $600 a pop. And that’s just the tip of it. The building of City Hall was a clinic in graft: the city was charged $7,500 for every thermometer, $41,190 for each broom, and $5.7 million for furniture and carpets. One carpenter even received almost $361,000 for a single month’s work. And although he was crooked as a dog’s hind leg, Tweed does get a bit of credit from some historians for under taking many important projects that improved life in New York (albeit at enormous financial gain to himself). Tweed’s illicit profits were said to be in the range of $200 million, and that was in the 1860s! The law eventually caught up with the Boss, though, and he died in prison in Fun Facts about Boss Tweed courtesy of Mental FlossKing of Corruption
704. Despite corruption, political machines weren’t ALL bad a. provided necessary city servicesb. helped to assimilate new immigrants to the city
72The Gilded Age refers to a brief time in American history after the Civil War Restoration era. During this time, the United States experienced a population and economic boom, leading to the creating of an incredibly wealthy upper class. The era lasted only a few short years from , before the market crash of 1893 brought a severe depression to the entire country.
74In the 1800s, cholera, yellow fever and malaria weren’t uncommon in New York, according to David Rosner, a history professor at Columbia University. Part of the reason: trash, which piled up in NYC streets (apparently, the garbage can had not yet been invented). The close-to-200,000 horses in the city also contributed to the mess—used for transportation, each one created 24 pounds of manure a day, and when the beasts died, they’d be left on the streets to decompose. Pigs also roamed Fifth Avenue. As for all that poop: You’d dig a hole and bury it—along with your own mess. Sewers weren’t created until the 1850s.