Push/Pull Factors – 1890’s Ireland potato famine Russia religious persecution Italians/Asians work My cousin wrote me a letter from America. He says he's making good money -- much more than he ever had at home. The factory works around the clock, every day, even Sunday! They always need new workers. He promises me I will have work if I come! I can stay at the boarding house where he stays. --Josef, Poland, 1905
Ellis Island – East Coast Angel Island – West Coast Worked hard. Assimilated. Close comm.’s
Russian Jews after their synagogue has been burned down.
Distribution of Swedish settlers in the U.S. What do you notice about where they came from and where they settled?
In America Tenements a block of apartments Crowded – Smelly – Dirty
Tenement Life: Small, cramped on the inside. Pretty dirty on the outside too.
Some worked inside their home for work or extra income.
Small Group: Name some sights, sounds, and smells that you’d encounter in a big city like NY, Chicago, or Philadelphia.
Urban housing was overcrowded and unsanitary. Many found it very difficult to accept. An old Italian saying summed up the disillusionment felt by many: "I came to America because I heard the streets were paved with gold. When I got here, found out three things: First, the streets weren't paved with gold; second, they weren't paved at all: and third, I was expected to pave them." In spite of the difficulties, few gave up and returned home.
Immigrants came to work: – Steel plants. – Coal mines. – Construction. – Stores. – Factories.
People in cities could now commute to work. The 1 st subway in NYC.
Article: Old vs New Immigrants Move to your “test” partner please. Text Tag share out.
Two “waves” of imm.’s – 1830-1860 Irish & German (also: English & Scandinavia) (Northern Europe) – 1880-1920 Italy, Greece, A-H, Russia, Poland (Southern &Eastern Europe) Settled into close-knit neighborhoods ghettos.
Political bosses politicians from your neighborhood who could “get things done”. Bosses part of a political machine. Whole system worked on “patronage”. – Appt.’s to government jobs as long as you voted for the “right guy”.
Ethnic jobs: – Italians/Polish construction jobs. – Greeks/Russians/It./Pol. mills and mines. – Greeks/Chinese restaurants/laundry – Jews garments/tailors Contract laborers imm.’s who had their passage to Am. paid for by a businessman, then forced to work for low wages to pay off the debt.
Nativism: Cause and Effect Nativism: Definition Causes of Nativism? Religious differences Competition for Jobs cause lower wages lack of willingness to assimilate Effect of Nativism? Job Discrimination Anti-Imm. Groups Anti-Imm Laws
Government enacts Anti-Immigrant Laws Chinese Exclusion Act 1882-1943 Chinese Exclusion Act 1882-1943 – First time gov’t restricts immigration targeting one racial group National Origins Act 1920-1961 National Origins Act 1920-1961 – Pressure from Nativist groups and labor unions – Est. a 2% Quota on Immigration – Purpose: To reduce immigration as a whole To target “undesirable” immigrants more than “desirable” immigrants!
HOW IT WORKS Take total # of people living in America from each foreign nation. Take 2% of that number to determine how many immigrants are allowed into the Nation per year Example: Great Britain: Immigrating to America since 1607 3.5 Million @ 2% = 70,000 Population in 1920: 3.5 Million @ 2% = 70,000 Italy: Immigrating to America around 1880 200,000 @ 2% = 4000 per year Population in 1920: 200,000 @ 2% = 4000 per year How does the National Origins Act accomplish it’s PURPOSE?
Analyzing Nativism Through Sources Political Cartoon