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Experiments in Political Order: Comparing African Nations and India

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Presentation on theme: "Experiments in Political Order: Comparing African Nations and India"— Presentation transcript:

1 Experiments in Political Order: Comparing African Nations and India
AP World History Chapter 23 “Independence and Development in the Global South”

2 Experiments in Political Order
Efforts to create political order across the developing world had to battle many conditions: Exploding populations High (and unrealistic) expectations following independence Lack of available resources to meet these expectations Diverse populations that had little loyalty to the new central state Large areas with widespread poverty and weak private economies

3 Experiments in Political Order
Wide range of political systems were established throughout the developing world: Communist regimes Multi-party democracies One-party democracies Military regimes Personal dictatorships and tyrannies

4 India’s Political Evolution
In India = Western-style democracy practiced continuously since independence Regular elections Peaceful changes in government Multiple political parties Civil rights and liberties A woman voting in the 2008 state election in India

5 India’s Political Evolution: Why Democracy Worked
Struggle for independence in India was much longer than struggles in Africa = gave Indian leaders time to figure out how they wanted to structure the new state The British gradually gave power over to the Indians = over several decades prior to independence in 1947 Many Indians possessed administrative and technical skills as a result Nationalist movement in India = within one political party (Congress Party) Committed to democracy

6 Rejection of Democracy in Africa: Why?
Theory #1 = Africans just weren’t ready for democracy or lacked the “ingredients” for democratic politics Africa’s traditional culture = based on communal rather than individualist values  not compatible with the competitiveness of party politics Lack of an educated electorate, middle-class, and strong capitalist economy

7 Rejection of Democracy in Africa: Why?
Theory #2 = Democracy was not an adequate system for developing a modern economy Competing political parties (that don’t always agree) = would slow down the process of creating national unity and developing a modern economy A little cell phone action…

8 Rejection of Democracy in Africa: Why?
The following conditions that existed within many initial democratic governments in Africa undermined popular support for democracy: Widespread economic disappointment Class resentments due to increased inequalities and competition for jobs, housing, education, etc. Ethnic conflicts, which sometimes turned violent Example: Genocide in Rwanda in 1994

9 Alternatives to Democracy
Most common alternative = government by soldiers By the early 1980s = the military actively governed about 15 African nations These militaries: Took power during times of crisis Claimed the nation was in danger and that only they could restore order Got rid of old political parties and constitutions Vowed to return power to civilians and restore democracy “at some point” Military Leaders in Mali

10 Revival of Democracy in Africa: 1980s
Failure of authoritarian governments to fix disastrous economic situations became evident Variety of grassroots movements began that demanded democratic change in order to better their lives: Disaffected students, religious organizations, urban workers, women’s groups Encouragement from world events  End of apartheid in South Africa; fall of communism; etc. Nigerian Voter in 2011

11 Obstacles to Economic Development
Most societies = sharply divided by class, religion, ethnic group, and gender Explosive population growth In most places = colonial rule had provided only the most basic foundations for modern development (if anything at all) Low literacy rates Few people with managerial experience Weak private economies Inefficient transportation systems Little leverage with the wealthy nations of the Global North

12 The Role of the State Most people expected that state authorities would take responsibility for developing the economy  Why? Private economies = weakly developed Entrepreneurs = didn’t have funds to invest Successful Soviet industrialization under state direction = hopeful State control = could protect people against the inequalities that came with capitalism

13 The Role of the State In the late 20th century, the support for state-directed economies faded and more people began to favor market economies  Why? Collapse of the Soviet Union = the world’s first state-dominated economy Evident failure, mismanagement, and corruption of many state-run enterprises International organizations (like the World Bank) = pushed developing countries in a capitalist direction The switch to market economies led to rapid economic growth in many nations (ex: China and India), but it also created inequalities and social conflict

14 Issues with Economic Development
“Urban bias” = too much focus on city-based industrial development and neglect or exploitation of rural areas and agriculture “Male bias” = encouraging men to work in modern industries and women to work in agriculture Debate over capital and technology-drive projects versus investment in “human capital” Capital-driven projects = dams, factories, etc. “Human capital” investment = education, technical training, health care, nutrition, etc.

15 Issues with Economic Development
Benefits versus drawbacks of foreign aid, investment, and trade Every economic decision (where to locate schools, factories, etc.) was political Always resulted in winners and losers in terms of power, advantage, and wealth

16 Varied Results of Economic Experiments
Various reasons for such sharp differences in economic results: Geography and natural resources Differing colonial experiences Variations in regional cultures Degree of political stability and social equality State economic policies Population growth rates Varying forms of involvement with the world economy Cocoa Farming in Ghana Durban, South Africa

17 Varied Results of Economic Experiments
Successful Economic Growth Little to No Economic Growth East Asian countries  ex: South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, CHINA! Most of Africa India  growing high-tech sector and middle class Most of the Arab world Oil-producing countries  especially since the 1970s when demand for oil skyrocketed Parts of Asia Several Latin American countries  ex: Chile, Brazil

18 Age-Group Differences

19 Less Developed Regions

20 Global Water Stress

21 Share of World’s GDP

22 Health Statistics

23 Bits Per Capita: An Information Revolution?

24 South Africa: Eco-tourism
Small tourist businesses operating out of the townships attracting customers from around the world by using the Internet.

25 Mozambique stops poaching with radios

26 Healthcare in Uganda A health care worker conducting a survey using a PDA. (SATELLIFE Photo: Mark Grabowsky)

27 COT African Decolonization
Changes Continuities 58 new countries developed Access to newest technologies (digital revolution, oil revenues, infrastructure) End of racists laws (Apartheid) New Christina missionaries and increase of evangelical movement Many borders drawn by European powers exist GDP increasing in many African nations due to foreign investment (rather than exploitation) Eco tourism a boom to Africa’s economic structure Women leaders (ex. Helen Surleaf Johnson of Liberia) Struggle with democracies and coups(governmental overthrow) Many African countries still developmentally behind Legacy of racism still systemic in culture Islam and Animism still important ( Sharia law) Ethnic and cultural tensions leading to civil strife (wars) Extreme poverty and debt an economic problem Desertification and deforestation still leads to hunger and war Military dictators and homophobic laws(ex Uganda)

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