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Presentation on theme: "Exploring Cells By the Class of 2013. 25 THINGS THAT SUPPORT LIFE. CREATED BY JAILYN LOVATO AND GEORGE WILSON."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploring Cells By the Class of 2013


3 25 ELEMENTS About 25 elements are essential to life. Four of these elements are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen these make up about 96 percent of living matter in your body.

4 The 25 elements. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and a little more elements account for the other four percent of your body.

5 What are the percentages. Nitrogen 3.3 percent Hydrogen 9.5 percent Carbon 18.5 percent Oxygen 65 percent Trace elements less than 0.01 percent

6 What are the percentages. Nitrogen 3.3 percent Hydrogen 9.5 percent Carbon 18.5 percent Oxygen 65 percent Trace elements less than 0.01 percent

7 HOW THEY SUSTAIN LIFE. These elements make up your body and every thing that you are is made up from these elements. These elements make your body and help it when its sick or has wounds these elements help fix all of these body but we need these elements to live because without them our body's wouldn’t be able to support us or live for that matter. If one of these elements weren't in our body even the one percent we would die and or have a deformity for the rest of our lives that is why we need these to live.

8 Chemical Properties are Based on the Structure of Atoms by: Cherise Martinez and Janice Chacon

9 Atoms Each element consists of a single kind of atom that is different from the atoms of all other elements. Atoms of all elements are made up of even smaller components called subatomic particles.

10 Subatomic Particles A proton is a subatomic particle with a single unit of positive electrical charge. An electron is a subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge. A neutron is a subatomic particle that is neutral, meaning it has no electrical charge.

11 Atomic Number All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons, known as the elements atomic number. The number of protons determines the atoms properties. Certain atoms can lose one or more electrons, while some atoms can gain one or two electrons.

12 Isotopes Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons in their atoms but different numbers of neutrons. A radioactive isotope is an isotope in which the nucleus breaks down over time, giving off radiation in the form of matter and energy.

13 Electrons and Reactivity Electrons differ in the amount of energy they have and how tightly they are held by the protons in the nucleus. Usually it is the electrons in the highest energy level of an atom that determines how that atom reacts.

14 Chemical Bonds Join Atoms One to Another By Deandre Velasquez & Natasha Salazar

15 Chemical Bonds When there is an attraction between two or more atoms they form chemical compounds.

16 4 types of Chemical Bonds Ionic Covalent Metallic Hydrogen

17 Covalent Bond A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, and other covalent bonds.

18 Ionic Bond A Ionic Bond is a type of chemical bond formed by the attraction between two oppositely charged ions.

19 Metallic Bonds A metallic bond is the electromagnetic interaction between delocalized electrons called conduction electrons and gathered in an “electron sea” and the metallic nuclei within metals.

20 Hydrogen Bond A hydrogen bond is the attractive force between the hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule.

21 Life Depends on the Unique Properties of Water By; Rose Valdez and Alondra Villalba

22 Cohesion and Adhesion Both cohesion and adhesion are important in the living world. One of the most important effects of these forces is keeping large molecules organized and arranged in a way that enables them to function properly in cells.

23 Water Content of the Human Body In a newborn infant, this may be as high as 75% of the body weight, but it progressively decreases from birth to old age, most of the decrease occurring during the first 10 years of life.

24 Water Percentage by Weight Lean muscle tissue 76% Blood 83% Body fat 10% Bone 22% Skin also contains much water. The human body is about 60% water in adult males and 55% in adult females.

25 Body Water

26 Earth’s Water Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface; the oceans contain 97.2% of the Earth's water. The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the Earth's albedo.


28 The Water Cycle

29 Carbohydrates & Lipids By: Shawn & Justin

30 Simple carbohydrates Various forms of sugar, such as glucose and sucrose, are simple carbohydrates. They are small molecules, so they can be broken down and absorbed by the body quickly and are the quickest source of energy

31 Complex carbohydrates these carbohydrates are composed of long strings of simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates are larger molecules than simple carbohydrates, they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates before they can be absorbed. So they tend to provide energy to the body more slowly than simple carbohydrates but still more quickly than protein or fat.

32 Glycemic index The glycemic index indicates only how quickly carbohydrates in a food are absorbed into the bloodstream. It does not include how much carbohydrate a food contains, which is also important.

33 Lipids lipids are complex molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol. The body needs fats for growth and energy. It also uses them to synthesize hormones and other substances needed for the body's activities.

34 Fatty Acids When the body needs fatty acids, it can make certain ones. Others, called essential fatty acids, cannot be synthesized and must be consumed in the die

35 Proteins and Enzymes By: Amanda, Kristian and Noely

36 What are Proteins? Proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism.

37 Proteins Proteins are organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and folded into a globular form. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and usually sulfur.

38 What are Enzymes? Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions.

39 Enzymes Enzymes work by lowering activation energy for a reaction, which increases the rate of the reaction.

40 Proteins and Enzymes Proteins and Enzymes are the molecules of life. They are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells

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