2What to Expect Today Quiz on Readings Analysis and Discussion of ReadingsRevising, Editing and Proofreading – What’s the Difference?Activity – Practice ProofreadingPeer Review Guidelines and AssignmentsPeer ReviewWhat to Expect Today
3Analysis of Readings Superman and Me - Sherman Alexie Shooting an Elephant – George OrwellAnalysis of Readings
4Analysis of Readings – Superman and Me RESERVATION FACTSAltogether, 566 American Indian tribes exist in the U.S.1The overall living conditions on some reservations have been cited as “comparable to the Third World.” NRC’s Program Partners tend to agree with this.2Access to jobs is limited on the reservations. Unemployment ranges from 35% to 85%, depending on the community. Overall unemployment for American Indians is about 49%.3Many American Indians work full-time yet still fall below poverty level. Poverty ranges from 38% to 63% of the population on Navajo, Rosebud, Pine Ridge, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, and other reservations in NRC’s service area.From 30-43% of American Indian children are living in poverty.5The high school dropout rate for American Indian students is 30 to 70%, depending on the reservation and the state. About 9% of American Indians have a college degree, compared to 19% of their Caucasian peers.6Source: National Relief CharitiesAnalysis of Readings – Superman and Me
5Superman and Me - Sherman Alexie Learned how to read by “reading” Superman comics when he was three years oldAlexie sees himself “saving” lives like Superman saves livesSuperman faces obstacles and overcomes them – so does AlexieAlexie fights evil – ignorance, stereotypesAlexie “refuses to fail” – so does Superman
6Superman and Me - Sherman Alexie "I refused to fail. I was smart. I was arrogant. I was lucky."Expectations of Indian children on a reservation -Indian children were stereotypically supposed to fail in the classroom, and most did. Alexie was smart and the Indians who weren't, ridiculed him.Those who failed were accepted, Those who excelled weren't.Analysis of Readings
8Analysis of Readings Shooting an Elephant – George Orwell Written in 1936Setting: Burma (present-day Myanmar) in the 1920s, when the country was a province of India. The action takes place in the town of Moulmein in the southern part of the province, called Lower Burma, a rice-growing region on the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Point of View: First PersonTwo dominant characters: the elephant and its exectionerMood “cloudy, stuffy morning at the beginnings of the rains.”Analysis of Readings
9based on Orwell’s personal experience back when he was working at Burma under the command of the British government."I perceived in this moment that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys (887A)." According to George Orwell, imperialism can cause damages to both the empire and its officers who feel forced to "impress the natives (887A)" thereby losing their freedom, and to the conquered people whose freedom is limited. All of the key elements mainly support the primary theme, through the inclusion of significant details.Analysis of Readings
10Key factors to consider • Colonialism refers to the rule of one nation over a group of people in a geographically distant land—usually to maintain control of that land’s resources.• Between the 1600s and the 1800s, Great Britain took control of millions of people, their land, and their resources through colonization.• British citizens often went to live in the colonies and to govern over the people there. They were outsiders and in the minority in the colonies.• The colonial subjects were resentful of the British• This essay is set in the British colony of Burma• George Orwell was a British police officer in BurmaSo…How do you think the Burmese felt about Orwell’s presence in their country? How do you think Orwell might have felt?Key factors to consider
11Write a definition in your own words for irony. What is it? When is it used? like?ironyWrite a definition in your own words for irony.
12Literary Device/Irony Irony is a literary device that brings out surprising or amusing contradictions. In verbal irony, the intended meaning of words clashes with their usual meaning, as when Orwell describes the dangerous elephant as “grandmotherly.”In irony of situation, events contradict what you expect to happen, as when the young Buddhist priests are revealed to be the most insulting toward the British.
13Generally, who has freedom—tyrants or the people they oppress? In this essay, who are the tyrants?As an agent of the British tyrants, does the reader expect Orwell to be free?Is he truly free?Interpret the Irony
14Generally, who has freedom—tyrants or the people they oppress Generally, who has freedom—tyrants or the people they oppress? (tyrants)In this essay, who are the tyrants? (the British)As an agent of the British tyrants, does the reader expect Orwell to be free? (yes)Is he truly free? (No, he is not free to follow his conscience; the hatred of the Burmese people and his fear of their ridicule control him.)Interpret the Irony
15Personal NarrativePersonal narratives usually focus on one key event. Though true, they are told like fictional stories: They have a setting, a main character among a group of characters, a series of events that lead to a climax, a resolution or ending.
16About the SelectionOrwell’s essay reveals the ambivalence a person may feel in a position of power.On one hand young Orwell sympathizes with the Burmese people, on the other hand Orwell, the police officer, is committed to continuing and even defending that oppression.
17Orwell’s conflicting attitudes Orwell’s sympathy for the BurmeseHis dislike of imperialismis desire to leave his job.**these attitudes conflict with his role as police officer, and his bad treatment by the Burmese.
18Theme Shooting an Elephant – George Orwell CONSCIENCE Largest fear is that of public humiliation or "looking like a fool" (Orwell 206)."The crowd would laugh at me" (Orwell 204) (if I don’t shoot the elephant)“I knew with perfect certainty that I ought not to shoot him.”"It seemed to me that it would be murder to shoot him" (Orwell 204).Despite the many reasons to not shoot the elephant such as how it is worth more alive rather than dead, or how he is a “poor shot,” he ultimately falls into the expectations of the Burma people. Against his moral belief he decides to kill the elephant.Theme
20When an elephant goes wild in a Burmese marketplace, Orwell must act, making decisions more from his confused feeling than from COMMON SENSE, and in the process demonstrating the intense human desire to avoid embarrassment.State of “MUST”
21Have you ever acted against your better judgment because you feared what people might think of you? State of “MUST”
22Orwell’s stated purpose for writing this essay is “to reveal his own personal dilemma and to reveal the cultural dilemma presented by colonialism itself.”Think about and answer this question: How does Orwell feel about the issue of British Colonialism? What quotes from the text help us to understand his perspective?Purpose
24Rewriting is the essence of writing well—where the game is won or lost Rewriting is the essence of writing well—where the game is won or lost. —William ZinsserRevising
25Revising means “to see again” – to see your work from a fresh perspective. Revision means “re-visioning” your paper. It is “big picture” work.What is Revising?
26What is Revising? Things to consider when revising: Check to see if any of the ideas need to be developedSee if you need to add further evidence or support.Revision can require adding material, taking material away, working with the big strokes of the paper.Revision might involve changing the order of paragraphs and re-crafting topic sentences/transitions.Revision may demand re-drafting the introduction and checking the conclusion to see what should be brought up to the front of the paper. All of this is when you “re-vision” your paper.What is Revising?
27Editing is what you do after you revise Editing is what you do after you revise. Editing is when you correct any awkwardness that may have occurred in the initial drafting or in revision (revision can be very helpful to the big picture but create problems within paragraphs, for example).Editing involves considering:Is the voice clear and confident?Is there a sense of rhythm and flow in each paragraph, each sentence?Do the sentences connect up with one another like well-constructed joints?What is Editing?
28Summing it Up Revising Editing Proofreading When revising something you are writing, you are looking at the overall layout of the document. This includes such things as the ordering of subjects and the overall flow of the document. This is done before editing.When editing something you are writing, you are looking at the layout of the paragraphs in your document. This includes such things as ordering of sentences within the paragraph and the flow of the paragraph. This is done before proofreading.When proofreading something you are writing, you are looking at your document at the sentence level. You will be looking for mistakes, such as spelling, punctuation and grammar.Summing it Up
29Proofreading – Let’s Practice Advanced Paragraph CorrectionCommonly Confused WordsProofreading – Let’s Practice
30Peer Review? What is that? Objective feedback to help you reviseSeeing someone’s text from your own perspectiveExplaining to them how you ‘see’ itBeing kind, yet honest, in the processIt is easy to assume that people know what we are talking about, but too often we do not fully explain ourselves.That is why it is good to have ‘another pair of eyes,’ so to speak.It is also helpful to have one of our peers look at our writing… someone who thinks like we do.That is where review from a peer is so helpful.While most readers are ‘friendly readers’ in that they try to follow along with our ideas, peer review gives us valuable feedback at any point in our writing.Click mouse for each paragraph.“Another Pair of Eyes”
31Why is it Important to Provide Effective Comments during Peer Review? To start, peer review has many benefits, including:The ability to get feedback on your writing before the instructor sees itThe ability to see your own strengths and weaknesses after reading and responding to another paperA greater sense of audience – it is not just your instructor reading your work!The chance to learn new information from your peers about the subject you may also be writing onThe opportunity for feedback, feedback, and more feedback!The essence of the peer review is your comments – without strong, specific comments, the peer review can often be useless!
32Imagine you have spent hours on writing a paper for this class, and you are counting on getting a good grade on the final draft. While working on a draft, you see that you have some problems in your writing, but you are not quite sure how to fix them. Who is one of your best resources?Think About It:
33Not to fear! Help is on the way! Now, imagine you are anticipating getting some really great, specific feedback from your peer reviewer. You go to class, switch papers, wait eagerly for your peer to help edit your work, and alas, you get your paper back. What did he write?Your peers!Source: A Presentation by Erin Trauth, Angela Tartaglia, Richard Ellman, Melissa Jones, and Andrea Dennin for the University of South Florida FYC Program
34“I liked it. ” “It was really good. ” “I didn’t like your thesis “I liked it.” “It was really good.” “I didn’t like your thesis.” Does this feedback help you fix your writing problems? Probably not. It is not specific enough.Source: A Presentation by Erin Trauth, Angela Tartaglia, Richard Ellman, Melissa Jones, and Andrea Dennin for the University of South Florida FYC Program
35As a peer reviewer, you can't just say, "I liked it," or "I didn't like it." Instead, you want to give the writer information that will really help to improve what the writer has written. What is important to remember is that while you should not be harsh or personal, you should be honest. Saying something works when it really does not will not help anyone.
36Three Types of Comments - Vague Comments- General, but Useful Comments- Specific, Directive CommentsIn order to make effective comments on a peer review, you want to make SPECIFIC, DIRECTIVE comments.Most EffectiveLeast EffectiveSpecific, Directive CommentGeneral, but Useful CommentVague CommentSource: A Presentation by Erin Trauth, Angela Tartaglia, Richard Ellman, Melissa Jones, and Andrea Dennin for the University of South Florida FYC Program
37Comments that are full of generalities, providing little or no specific direction for revision and/or comments that simply praise or disagree with the writing Example: “Try to revise the whole second page” or “I liked it” or “I do not really like this part” Think about it: what do comments like this really tell a person about their paper that will help them REVISE? Nothing.Vague Comments:Source: A Presentation by Erin Trauth, Angela Tartaglia, Richard Ellman, Melissa Jones, and Andrea Dennin for the University of South Florida FYC Program
38General, but Useful Comments Comments that are too general but may provide some direction for revision Example: “I don’t like your introduction. Maybe describe the topic of public writing better.” A general, but useful comment is slightly better than a vague comment because it narrows what works (or does not work) to a specific area of the paper, as well as offering a specific suggestion. We can take this a step further, however, by providing a specific, directive comment.Source: A Presentation by Erin Trauth, Angela Tartaglia, Richard Ellman, Melissa Jones, and Andrea Dennin for the University of South Florida FYC Program
39A Specific, Directive Comment Comments that not only point out a specific problem area of the paper, but also offer the writer a reason why the change is needed and a specific direction for revision. Example: “I do not think the introduction fully describes the topic of public writing in a way all readers will understand, which is necessary if you are going to fully analyze the topic in the next few paragraphs . Maybe you could use a quote that really defines public writing from a source, or you could expand on your first two sentences (which I have underlined in your paper).”Note that this comment points out a specific spot for improvement (the introduction) and states what exactly is wrong with itNote that this comment tells the writer why the change is neededSource: A Presentation by Erin Trauth, Angela Tartaglia, Richard Ellman, Melissa Jones, and Andrea Dennin for the University of South Florida FYC Program
40Pop Quiz!In the following pairs, determine which of the two choices is the most effective comment:“This is disorganized!”"This section discusses both animal-rearing conditions and experimental methods, but the two are mixed together, making it difficult to focus on your points. Could you separate each into its own paragraph?”“How are these references relevant?”“The background and references given in paragraph 2 don't seem directly relevant to your thesis. I think we need references that give facts on the dangers of public writing specifically rather than references that explain the extensive history of blogging and its positive effects.”“Your thesis is unclear.”“I am having trouble understanding your thesis. The thesis needs to be clear so that the reader is sure of the position you are going to take in the rest of the paper. Could you state specifically the stance this paper will take on gun control?”
41Remember, the best peer review comments include a specific statement of where an improvement needs to be made, why it should be changed and one-two suggestions for the writer in fixing the weakness!
42In order to be an effective peer reviewer, remember to: Read the writer’s essay carefully – just skimming the paper is not enough to really help the writer.Be positive. Point out strengths as well as weaknesses, and be sensitive in how you phrase your criticism (“Could you clarify this section?” rather than “Your organization is a mess.”)Be honest. Don’t say something works when it doesn’t. You’re not helping the writer if you avoid mentioning a problem.Be specific. Rather than simply saying a paragraph is “confusing,” for example, try to point to a specific phrase that confuses you and, if possible, explain why that phrase is problematic.Focus on one or two major areas for revision – it is not your job to completely edit the paper, but instead to focus on major flaws and offer suggestionsSource: A Presentation by Erin Trauth, Angela Tartaglia, Richard Ellman, Melissa Jones, and Andrea Dennin for the University of South Florida FYC Program
43In order to be an effective peer reviewer, remember to: Read the writer’s essay carefully – just skimming the paper is not enough to really help the writer.Be positive. Point out strengths as well as weaknesses, and be sensitive in how you phrase your criticism (“Could you clarify this section?” rather than “Your organization is a mess.”)Be honest. Don’t say something works when it doesn’t. You’re not helping the writer if you avoid mentioning a problem.Be specific. Rather than simply saying a paragraph is “confusing,” for example, try to point to a specific phrase that confuses you and, if possible, explain why that phrase is problematic.Focus on one or two major areas for revision – it is not your job to completely edit the paper, but instead to focus on major flaws and offer suggestionsSource: A Presentation by Erin Trauth, Angela Tartaglia, Richard Ellman, Melissa Jones, and Andrea Dennin for the University of South Florida FYC Program
45Revisions Jane Doe Made: Added first sentence to paragraph 1: "Beauty is only skin deep" was a phrase I heard quite often during my awkward childhood. Does this make the introduction stronger? Why or why not?Revisions
46Ground Rules for Peer Review GROUND RULES/GUIDELINES FOR PEER REVIEWRead a draft all the way through before you begin to comment on it.Give yourself enough time to read and respond.Point out the strengths of the draft.When discussing areas that need improvement, be nice. Offer appropriate, constructive comments from a reader's point of view.Make comments text-specific, referring specifically to the writer's draft (NO "rubber stamps" such as "awkward" or "unclear" or "vague," which are too general to be helpful).Ground Rules for Peer Review
55The ‘How’ of Peer Review Peer Review works by being a helpful readerWays you can respond as a helpful reader:If you get confused or lostMark an ‘X’ in the text where you are confusedAsk the writer to explain his or her ideasAsk the writer to state his or her thesisAsk the writer to state the question the thesis answersHelp the writer to brainstorm (mapping, outlining, etc.)Ask the writer to fill in the blanks:My purpose in this paper is _________________.My purpose in this section is ________________.Peer Review Handouts are very helpful to students. Providing students with a list of questions gives them a place to start.Additionally - and perhaps more importantly - is the need to model peer review with the class as a whole before students begin the process themselves.
59Thank your peer reviewer for his or her feedback! Read the comments carefully.Consider the specific suggestions for improvement. If you are unclear about what the peer reviewer says, ask for clarification.When revising your final draft, summarize the feedback you received and note the changes you have made in your revised document.