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© Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 19 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 19 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 19 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 19 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. Russia The October 1917 Revolution – Why did the Bolsheviks Win?

2 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Learning objectives What we will learn in this presentation: © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Learning objectives The problems that the Provisional Government faced. The differences between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. The ideas of Karl Marx. The importance of Lenin. The events of the July Days and the Kornilov Affair. How the Bolsheviks seized power in October 1917.

3 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 The new government’s problems

4 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Two groups were trying to get the support of the people in Russia during If you had been a town worker queuing for food or a peasant starving to death, would you have supported Group A…? Group A “We need to support our Allies and win the war against Germany.” “We cannot give the land to the peasants until we have had elections.” “Food is needed for the soldiers on the front line: we all need to make sacrifices for this.” “We can promise victory, stability and good government.” Bolsheviks and Mensheviks

5 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Group B “The war is causing people to starve to death: we must stop it.” “If you support us in our bid for power we will give land to the peasants.” “There would be enough food to go round if we weren’t still fighting the war.” “We promise Peace, Bread and Land.” …or would you have supported Group B? Bolsheviks and Mensheviks

6 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Bolsheviks and Mensheviks “We need to support our Allies and win the war against Germany.” “We cannot give the land to the peasants until we have had elections.” “Food is needed for the soldiers on the front line: we all need to make sacrifices for this.” “We can promise victory, stability and good government.” “The war is causing people to starve to death: we must stop it.” “If you support us in our bid for power we will give land to the peasants.” “There would be enough food to go round if we weren’t still fighting the war.” “We promise Peace, Bread and Land.” If you agreed with most of these you would have been a Menshevik. If you agreed with most of these you would have been a Bolshevik.

7 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 The Bolshevik Party took control of Russia in October They were a Communist Party. On the next slide are the basic ideas of Karl Marx, the founder of communism. How many of them appeal to you? Karl Marx

8 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 All people should be treated equally. Wars are fought for rich people to make a profit, they never benefit ordinary people. Workers should all share the profits from the things they make, they shouldn’t just go to the factory owners. The only way to get the ruling classes to give up power is to take it from them by revolution. All people should be paid the same wage regardless of what job they do. Marx’s ideas

9 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 The picture below is of Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik (Communist) Party in Russia. He had been in exile in Switzerland because of his revolutionary activities. © David King Collection Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

10 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 © David King Collection In April 1917 Lenin returned and inspired the workers to rebel. The words below are adapted from his ‘April Theses’. The war is an imperialist war. The present government won’t pull out of it. We demand an end to the war. The land will be taken away from the landowners and given to the peasants. The Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies are the true government of Russia. All Power to the Soviets. We will give the people what they want and deserve. Peace, Bread and Land. Lenin and the April Theses

11 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 A premature attempt to seize power took place by the Bolsheviks, against Lenin’s wishes, in July : The Russian people were fed up with the failures of the Provisional Government. In June 1917 the army was severely defeated in Galicia (Austria). 2: There were street demonstrations by sailors from the Kronstadt naval base and soldiers from the Petrograd garrison demanding that the Soviet should take control. 3: The Provisional Government decided to send the troops from the Petrograd garrison to the front line to get them out of the way. 4: Some Bolsheviks joined in but the demonstration was easily put down by loyal troops. The July Days

12 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 In August 1917 the Kornilov Affair worried lots of Russians and caused some people to turn towards the Bolsheviks. General Kornilov was an army officer who thought that the Provisional Government under Kerensky was too weak and couldn’t defend the country. He demanded that the Provisional Government should get tough with the Soviets and he gathered troops together to take control himself. Kornilov was stopped by workers and soldiers supporting the Petrograd Soviet. A new force called the Bolshevik Red Guards helped the Soviet put down the revolt. © David King Collection The Kornilov Affair

13 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Preparing for revolution

14 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 The Bolsheviks seized control in one night in October No one had voted the Bolsheviks into power, not even the Petrograd Soviet. But now they were the leaders of Russia. 1. Trotsky got the support of the troops at the Peter & Paul Fortress. 2. Bolshevik Red Guards captured important places such as bridges, the telephone exchange and radio station. 3. At 10 p.m. a group of less than a dozen Red Guards seized the government headquarters. The government had fled and there was no resistance. 4. At about 1 a.m. Lenin stood up at a meeting of the All Russian Congress of Soviets, took off his disguise and announced that the Bolsheviks had now taken control in the name of the Soviets. The October Revolution

15 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 The painting below was produced in 1937 to show what the October Revolution was like. How many things can you see that may not be factually accurate? © David King Collection The October Revolution: source analysis

16 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 There are too many Bolshevik soldiers in the picture. There are too many other people. There was no large-scale resistance. It’s made to look more exciting than it really was. This painting is propaganda. a) What does this mean? b) Why was it painted showing things that did not really happen? It’s an attempt to try to show that the Bolsheviks were popular and heroic leaders, giving the Russian people what they wanted. © David King Collection The October Revolution: source analysis

17 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Why did the Bolsheviks succeed?

18 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Why did the Bolsheviks succeed?

19 © Boardworks Ltd of 19 Quiz


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