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Chapter Twenty-Two Lecture One Legends of Aeneas.

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1 Chapter Twenty-Two Lecture One Legends of Aeneas

2 Greek myths developed later by the Romans They bring to them their own cultural heritage Romans had no creation account or divine myths Mostly Roman legend for national and social functions

3 Early Rome: Myth, Legend, History

4 Early Rome Rome was one of many small towns Earliest influences were Greek and Near Eastern by way of the Etruscans Rome first ruled by Etruscan kings

5 Early Rome Replaced in 500 by the “republic” –Patricians (senate) –Consuls (two-year terms of office) –Symbolism of the fasces Plebeians not in the government at first –Gradually acquire a role Legendary traditions justify the rule of the patricians

6 Early Rome Rome expanded greatly under its republic New duties of running an empire brought down the Republic and ended in the Roman Empire, with an emperor

7 Roman Religion

8 Latini arrive in 1500 BC Had different practices and attitudes from the Greeks whom we’ve studied

9 Numina and Sacrificium

10 Religion of the Latini had deities that weren’t anthropomorphic Theirs were the “nodders,” who inhabited certain functions of daily life Robigus/o –Fungus on grain

11 Numina and Sacrificium The Robigalia –Priest of the Quirinus (co + viri) –wine, incense, gut of a sheep, entrails of a dirty, red dog... Sacrificium –do ut des –Carefully scripted rituals that had to be observed –Appius Claudius Pulcher’s chickens

12 Numina and Sacrificium Potentially innumerable –First-Plower, Second-Plower, Maker-of- Ridges-between-Furrows, Implanter... Some central to the state as a whole –Janus Some numina become identified with Greek deities and assume their myths

13 Roman Deities Equated with Greek

14 Roman/Greek Deities Equated Identification mostly poetic innovation Made by poets Pushed during the reign of the emperors for political reasons

15 Roman/Greek Deities Equated RO/GKOriginal Roman Function Jupiter/ZeusSunny Sky/Rain Juno/HeraFamily/Moon Diana/ArtemisSpirit of the woods Ceres/DemeterWheat Mercury/HermesNot an original Roman numen Neptune/PoseidonWaters

16 Roman/Greek Deities Equated RO/GKOriginal Roman Function Vulcan/HephaestusVolcanoes; destructive fires Mars/AresWolf; month of the beginning of the campaign season Minerva/AthenaHandicrafts Liber/Dionysus“Freer”?; wine Faunus/PanRelease from forest terror Venus/AphroditeFresh water; vegetable fertility

17 Roman/Greek Deities Equated RO/GKOriginal Roman Function HerculesHeracles: Brought in as a foreign cult; no original Roman numen AsculepiusAsklepius: no original Roman numen ProserpinaPersephonê: no original Roman numen DisHades: no original Roman numen

18 Hercules and the Meat Market

19 Shows mixture of sources The Forum Boarium –Hercules passed through Rome with the cattle of Geryon and freed Rome from the cattle- rustler Cacus –Numerous honorific statues and buildings erected to him there

20 Gods of the Family and State

21 Gods of the family weren’t absorbed by Greek deities –No Greek equivalent for them Lar (plural Lares) –Etruscan for a ghost –Of the fertile field first => of many places –Worshipped in shrines at crossroads –Family members in the shrines

22 Gods of the Family and State Penates –Protected a household’s things –Portable The gens –Paterfamilias –A man’s genius All of Rome a family –Vesta (Hestia) –Pietas

23 Gods of the Family and State “No doubt it was the native Roman predisposition to regard abstractions as divine that enabled them to transfer pious devotion from the head of a family to an invisible entity of great power, the Roman state. Greek religious anthropomorphism, by contrast, stood in the way of granting obedience to a divine abstraction, and the Greeks never did evolve a nation state.”

24 End

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