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Chapter 22 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865 Anitha Varikattu.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865 Anitha Varikattu."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 Girding for War: The North and the South, Anitha Varikattu

2 Secession of the Union  North and South couldn’t be separated because it was geographically impossible  If secession did occur, problems would emerge such as, the paying of national debt, and the ownership of joint territories  Foreign view  US wouldn’t be as powerful, if it was separated; European countries would try to gain access into the Americas again

3 Battle of the Forts The seceding states had taken US arsenals, and other such buildings within their borders when they had left Fort Sumter was one of the only forts remaining in US possession. It was running low on supplies, and Lincoln wanted to send supplies, so he sent the fort supplies South Carolina thought that this was a reinforcement tactic by Lincoln, so they attacked the fort, the general at the Fort surrendered.

4 Brothers’ Blood and Border Blood Border States [slave states]  Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia Border States [slave states]  Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia Lincoln wanted these states to join the union. So he had to say that he wasn’t trying to end slavery, but trying to preserve the union Lincoln wanted these states to join the union. So he had to say that he wasn’t trying to end slavery, but trying to preserve the union Some Native American tribes such as the Cherokees joined forces with the South, because the Native Americans had slaves, so they felt that they shared a common cause with the South Some Native American tribes such as the Cherokees joined forces with the South, because the Native Americans had slaves, so they felt that they shared a common cause with the South

5 Advantages and Disadvantages of the North vs. the South ► South only had to fight defensively on interior lands ► Had talented officers such as General Robert E. Lee. ► Southerners were taught to fight at a very young age ► High morale ► Didn’t have a lot of factories, so there wasn’t a lot of manufacturing; shortage of supply ► Had to fight on a great amount of land, and then join it to the union ► Officers weren't as competent as the south ► Northerners weren't used to the military life style ► Controlled the sea; had a superior navy, and established a blockade ► Had a greater population so more manpower ► More factories, so there was no real problem of shortages on supplies

6 Dethroning King Cotton Foreign nations depended on the import of cotton from the south, but countries such as Britain and France had a supply of cotton stored up, so they sided with the North But later on the supply of cotton ended, and some Americans sent food to the unemployed workers, and Union armies brought or captured back cotton which they sent to the foreign nations

7 Problems in the Anglo- Britain Relationship Trent Affair (1861)  Union warship stopped a British ship Trent, and removed two Confederate diplomats who were on their way to Europe. Britain was outraged, and demanded an apology, and the release of the prisoners. Lincoln agreed to this later on, and released the prisoners Trent Affair (1861)  Union warship stopped a British ship Trent, and removed two Confederate diplomats who were on their way to Europe. Britain was outraged, and demanded an apology, and the release of the prisoners. Lincoln agreed to this later on, and released the prisoners Alabama  Britain was building confederate ships such as Alabama. Alabama captured many of the Union ships. It was finally destroyed in The North was upset that Britain was going against its original neutrality agreement. Britain realized it was going against it, but continued to build these ships Alabama  Britain was building confederate ships such as Alabama. Alabama captured many of the Union ships. It was finally destroyed in The North was upset that Britain was going against its original neutrality agreement. Britain realized it was going against it, but continued to build these ships

8 Foreign Flare-ups  Laird Rams (1863)  two confederate warships built in Britain designed to destroy the Union Ships. North got mad, and London decided not to send the ships to the confederacy  Canada  Irish Americans decided to raise tiny “armies” and invade Canada. Canada was outraged that the US went against the neutrality agreement  Canada became a nation in 1867  Mexico City  Napoleon III sent an army in 1863 and in the next year pronounced Austrian archduke Maximilian as emperor; Napoleon was going against the Monroe Doctrine

9 President Davis vs. President Lincoln President Davis  Wasn’t very popular; tried very hard to keep the Confederacy a nation  Had trouble with his congress  Defied public opinion rather than lead it  Confederate Constitution couldn’t prevent its states from seceding. President Lincoln  Was popular  Capable of changing public opinion  North had a long established govt. was financially stable, and recognized abroad, and at home.

10 Limitations on wartime Liberties Abraham Lincoln often went against the Constitution in his actions Abraham Lincoln often went against the Constitution in his actions Did not get Congress’ approval in certain situations such as the blockade on the South, and the increasing size of the army. Did not get Congress’ approval in certain situations such as the blockade on the South, and the increasing size of the army. Suspended habeas corpus Suspended habeas corpus Gave $2 million to three private officials for military purposes Gave $2 million to three private officials for military purposes “supervised” the voting in the Border states “supervised” the voting in the Border states

11 Volunteers and Draftees: North and South North first majority of the army was volunteers first majority of the army was volunteers Congress passed the Draft in 1863; Had to go or else pay $300 Congress passed the Draft in 1863; Had to go or else pay $300 Draft unfair to the poor; rich people could pay people to go in their place, or just pay the $300, the poor couldn’t Draft unfair to the poor; rich people could pay people to go in their place, or just pay the $300, the poor couldn’t Draft not liked in the North; New York City, a riot broke out Draft not liked in the North; New York City, a riot broke out “Bounty Brokers”  people that combed the poorhouses, and taverns and found people to enlist for them “Bounty Brokers”  people that combed the poorhouses, and taverns and found people to enlist for themSouth relied mainly on volunteers as well relied mainly on volunteers as well Population was small, so the draft came a year earlier than the North; any man capable of seeing lightning and hearing thunder, could join the army Population was small, so the draft came a year earlier than the North; any man capable of seeing lightning and hearing thunder, could join the army Draft was similar to the north in that rich people could exempt themselves from going into the army Draft was similar to the north in that rich people could exempt themselves from going into the army

12 The Economic Stresses of War North North North had money so the economic stresses weren’t that bad Raises excise taxes on tobacco, and alcohol; an income tax was levied; custom receipts helped as well Morrill Tariff Act (1861)  increased duties about 5-10%; increased throughout the war, to raise revenue, and provide protection for prosperous manufacturers Washington Treasury  issued green backed paper money, its value determined by the nations credit; inflation was occurring as a result of that National Banking System (1863)  designed to establish a standard bank note currency; banks that joined the National Banking System could buy government bonds, and issue paper money backed by the National Banking System South South The South was doing bad Customs duties decreases as a result of the Union blockade Confederate bonds were sold at home and abroad Richmond Regime increased taxes, and imposed a 10% levy on farm produce South opposed direct taxation by central authority Forced to print blue backed paper money; Inflation occurred

13 “Shady” Millionaires in the North  New Factories emerged, because of the new protective prices; Manufacturers and Business people brought in the fortunes of the war  Millionaire Class emerged  Dishonest people received an enormous amount of profit; ex: some northern manufacturers supplied shoes with cardboard soles, or uniforms of “shoddy” wool or reprocessed wool  Labor saving machinery helped North to grow economically; ended custom tailored clothing  Discovery of petroleum gushers in 1859 send a group of “Fifty- Niners” to Pennsylvania  Opportunities for Women emerged  women had to take the place for the men that had left for the army; Elizabeth Blackwell helped organize the US Sanitary Commission to provide medical supplies and assistance to armies

14 A Crushed Cotton Kingdom The Civil War greatly hurt the South The South had possessed 30% of the national wealth in 1860, but in 1870 only acquired 12% Average Southern income decreased to 2/5 of the Northern income Transportation collapsed; also the supplies of goods diminished Women worked hard for the war effort; stopped using the luxuries that they had before the war.


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