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Run-ons and Comma Splices. What is a run-on? A run-on is two complete sentences (also called independent clauses) joined without any punctuation. A run-on.

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Presentation on theme: "Run-ons and Comma Splices. What is a run-on? A run-on is two complete sentences (also called independent clauses) joined without any punctuation. A run-on."— Presentation transcript:

1 Run-ons and Comma Splices

2 What is a run-on? A run-on is two complete sentences (also called independent clauses) joined without any punctuation. A run-on is two complete sentences (also called independent clauses) joined without any punctuation.Example: Bernard loved his part-time job at the local newspaper there was one problem.

3 What is a comma splice? A comma splice is two complete sentences (or independent clauses) joined by only a comma. A comma splice is two complete sentences (or independent clauses) joined by only a comma.Example: Nearly all the people who worked there had the same habit, it was a habit that had always annoyed Bernard.

4 How can you identify run-ons and comma splices? Find each of the independent clauses in a sentence. Find each of the independent clauses in a sentence. Check to see how they are joined. Is there any punctuation between them? If not, you may be looking at a run-on. Check to see how they are joined. Is there any punctuation between them? If not, you may be looking at a run-on. If there is a comma between independent clauses, look for a coordinating conjunction (like and, but, for, so, or, yet). If there is none, you may be looking at a comma splice. If there is a comma between independent clauses, look for a coordinating conjunction (like and, but, for, so, or, yet). If there is none, you may be looking at a comma splice.

5 How can you correct run-ons and comma splices? There are four ways to correct a run-on or a comma splice: - Add a period. - Add a semicolon. - Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction. - Add a dependent word.

6 Add a period. You can split run-ons and comma splices into two separate sentences by adding a period between them. After adding the period, capitalize the letter that begins the new sentence. Reread your new sentences to make sure they each contain a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.

7 Example Run-on: Each person had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors their visitors were not able to sit in many of those chairs. Corrected: Each person had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors. Their visitors were not able to sit in many of those chairs.

8 How would you add a period to correct this sentence? The reason was very simple, most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs. A) The reason was very simple, most people. Stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs. B) The reason was very simple, most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff. On their chairs. C) The reason was very simple. Most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs. D) none of the above

9 How would you add a period to correct this sentence? The reason was very simple, most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs. ANSWER: A) The reason was very simple, most people. Stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs. B) The reason was very simple, most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff. On their chairs. C) The reason was very simple. Most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs. D) none of the above

10 Add a semicolon. A second way to correct run-ons and comma splices is to use a semicolon [;] to join the two sentences. Use a semicolon only when the two sentences express closely related ideas. A semicolon can be used only where a period could also be used; the words on each side of the semicolon must be able to stand alone as a complete sentence. Do not capitalize the word that follows a semicolon unless it is the name of a specific person, place, or thing that is usually capitalized.

11 Example Run-on: Bernard wanted to break this habit after all, why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair? Corrected: Bernard wanted to break this habit; after all, why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?

12 How would you add a semicolon to correct this sentence? To his astonishment, everyone he asked agreed they said they would clear everything off their chairs. A) To his astonishment; everyone he asked agreed they said they would clear everything off their chairs. B) To his astonishment, everyone he asked agreed; they said they would clear everything off their chairs. C) To his astonishment, everyone he asked agreed they said; they would clear everything off their chairs. D) none of the above

13 How would you add a semicolon to correct this sentence? To his astonishment, everyone he asked agreed they said they would clear everything off their chairs. ANSWER: A) To his astonishment; everyone he asked agreed they said they would clear everything off their chairs. B) To his astonishment, everyone he asked agreed; they said they would clear everything off their chairs. C) To his astonishment, everyone he asked agreed they said; they would clear everything off their chairs. D) none of the above

14 Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction. A third way to correct run-ons is to add a comma and a coordinating conjunction: and, but, or, nor, so, for, or yet. Think of a coordinating conjunction as a link that joins independent clauses to form one sentence. A comma splice already has a comma, so you need to add only a conjunction. Before choosing a conjunction, read the independent clauses aloud to see which word best expresses the relationship between them.

15 Example Comma splice: Eventually, he got to everyone in the office, one by one, the chairs were cleared of clutter. Corrected: Eventually, he got to everyone in the office, and one by one, the chairs were cleared of clutter.

16 How would you add a comma and a coordinating conjunction to correct this sentence? Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. A) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, and it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. B) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived it wasn’t long, and before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. C) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, or it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. D) none of the above

17 How would you add a comma and a coordinating conjunction to correct this sentence? Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. ANSWER: A) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, and it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. A) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, and it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. B) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived it wasn’t long, and before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. C) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, or it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again. D) none of the above

18 Add a dependent word. A fourth way to correct run-ons and comma splices is to make one of the complete sentences a dependent clause by adding a dependent word, such as after, because, before, if, though, even though, unless, or when. Choose the dependent word (or subordinating conjunction) that best expresses the relationship between the two clauses.

19 Example Run-on: Sophia thought they got the watchdog their house was robbed recently. Corrected: Sophia thought they got the watchdog because their house was robbed recently.

20 How would you add a dependent word to correct this sentence? Having a dog in the neighborhood probably made it safer for everyone that nonstop barking was intolerable. A) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably made it safer for everyone, that nonstop barking was intolerable. B) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably made it safer for everyone, even though that nonstop barking was intolerable. C) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably made it safer for everyone, and that nonstop barking was intolerable. D) none of the above

21 How would you add a dependent word to correct this sentence? Having a dog in the neighborhood probably made it safer for everyone that nonstop barking was intolerable. ANSWER: A) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably made it safer for everyone, that nonstop barking was intolerable. B) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably made it safer for everyone, even though that nonstop barking was intolerable. C) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably made it safer for everyone, and that nonstop barking was intolerable. D) none of the above

22 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: Anthony was careful with money, his friends weren’t always so financially savvy. A) Anthony was careful with money, and his friends weren’t always so financially savvy. B) Though Anthony was careful with money, his friends weren’t always so financially savvy. C) Anthony was careful with money, so his friends weren’t always so financially savvy. D) none of the above

23 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: Anthony was careful with money, his friends weren’t always so financially savvy. ANSWER: A) Anthony was careful with money, and his friends weren’t always so financially savvy. B) Though Anthony was careful with money, his friends weren’t always so financially savvy. C) Anthony was careful with money, so his friends weren’t always so financially savvy. D) none of the above

24 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey. A) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, Anthony assumed, this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey. B) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, and Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey. C) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey. D) none of the above

25 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey. ANSWER: A) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, Anthony assumed, this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey. B) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, and Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey. C) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey. D) none of the above

26 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony, he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through. A) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony he repaid it; even after his work promotion fell through. B) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through. C) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony; he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through. D) none of the above

27 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony, he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through. ANSWER: A) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony he repaid it; even after his work promotion fell through. B) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through. C) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony; he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through. D) none of the above

28 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, he liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes. A) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, or he liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes. B) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, he liked to buy things like expensive cameras. Fine clothes, and designer shoes. C) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck. He liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes. D) none of the above

29 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, he liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes. ANSWER: A) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, or he liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes. B) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, he liked to buy things like expensive cameras. Fine clothes, and designer shoes. C) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck. He liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes. D) none of the above

30 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money, one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar. A) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money though one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar. B) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar. C) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money; one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar. D) none of the above

31 Use one of the four ways to correct this comma splice: As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money, one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar. ANSWER: A) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money though one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar. B) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar. C) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money; one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar. D) none of the above


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