Presentation on theme: "Living Together with Animals What are the Ethical Questions on This?"— Presentation transcript:
Living Together with Animals What are the Ethical Questions on This?
Animals as Objects of Use Animals as Objects of Use Pets- abandonment, over-population. Pets- abandonment, over-population. Food Food Clothing Clothing Leather Goods Leather Goods Medicines and Shampoos Medicines and Shampoos Hunting Hunting Entertainment Entertainment Zoos Zoos
Objects of Use- Pets Abandoned Abandoned Abused Abused Over- population Over- population
Animals as Objects- Hens Packed in cages (typically less than half a square foot of floor space per bird), 6 hens can become immobilized and die of asphyxiation or dehydration
Laying Hens “[T]he American laying hen passes her brief span piled together with a half- dozen other hens in a wire cage. Every natural instinct of this animal is thwarted, leading to a range of behavioral ‘vices’ that can include cannibalizing her cage mates. She rubs her body against the wire mesh until it is bleeding and featherless.10 percent or so of hens that can’t bear it and simply die.
Animals as Objects of Use- Pigs Real-life ‘Babes’ see no sun in their limited lives, with no hay to lie on, no mud to roll in. Piglets are weaned from their mothers [2– 3 weeks] after birth (compared with 13 weeks in nature).This premature weaning leaves the pigs with a lifelong craving to suck and chew- they bite tails of other pigs.
Pigs Pigs Approximately 200,000 pigs arrive dead at U.S. slaughterhouses each year. 12 Many of these deaths are caused by a lack of ventilation on transport trucks in hot weather. 15 Shown at left are U.S. pigs on a transport truck loaded in Oklahoma and destined for a slaughterhouse south of Mexico City—a journey that would last more than 30 h ours. In transit
Cattle Cattle “It takes 25 minutes to turn a live steer into steak at the modern slaughterhouse where Ramon Moreno works. “The cattle were supposed to be dead before they got to Moreno. But too often they weren’t.‘They blink. They make noises,’ he said softly. ‘The head moves, the eyes are wide and looking around.’ “Still Moreno would cut. On bad days, he says, dozens of animals reached his station clearly alive and conscious. Some would survive as far as the tail cutter, the belly ripper, the hide puller. ‘They die,’ said Moreno, ‘piece by piece.’”
Entertainment Animals- Use Standard circus industry training tools used on animals include bull hooks, whips, clubs, and electric prods. Employees report abuse of circus elephants. Circus elephants Circus elephants
Circus Elephants Circus Elephants An elephant is being trained to lie down. Being trained to lay down
Entertainment Animals-Objects Lions and tigers, are constantly on the move in their native habitats. In the circus, animals spend most of their time in cages or chains.
Whale Hunting Contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate. Pro-whaling countries wish to lift the ban on stocks that they believe have recovered sufficiently to sustain limited hunting Anti-whaling countries and environmental groups contend that those stocks remain vulnerable and that whaling is immoral and should remain banned
Dolphin Hunt Dolphin drive hunting, also called dolphin drive fishing, is a method of hunting dolphins and occasionally other small cetaceans by driving them together with boats and then usually into a bay or onto a beach. Their escape is prevented by closing off the route to the open sea or ocean with boats and nets. huntingdolphins cetaceans huntingdolphins cetaceans
Research Animals 112,200 monkeys used in labs in U.S. Diseases-; Psychological disorders, transplants, vaccine, drub abuse tests.
Animals in Research Animal tests aren’t reliable. People and animals are different and that’s why a medicine or cosmetic ingredient that is safe on animals may not be it on people or vice- versa. For example aspirin is toxic to rats and mice but not to people Animal testing is cruel. There are alternatives to animal testing
Benefits- Animals Benefits- Animals Thanks to research using animals, diseases such as polio have been virtually wiped out. Other illnesses, such as diabetes and arthritis, are controlled through animal research. Thanks to research using animals, diseases such as polio have been virtually wiped out. Other illnesses, such as diabetes and arthritis, are controlled through animal research. Animals benefit from research, too! diseases, and developed vaccines—all by using animals in biomedical research. Animals benefit from research, too! diseases, and developed vaccines—all by using animals in biomedical research.
Regulations for Care Animal Care Committees Refinement, Reduction & Replacement- Three R’s Other Countries
Animals as Rights Holders Rights conferring characteristics- intelligence, sentience- ability to feel and suffer. Rights conferring characteristics- intelligence, sentience- ability to feel and suffer. What rights then do animals have? What rights then do animals have? Life Life in natural habitat Freedom from pain and suffering.
The Five Freedoms The Five Freedoms Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition Freedom from discomfort, pain, injury, or disease Freedom to express normal behavior Freedom from fear and distress Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition Freedom from discomfort, pain, injury, or disease Freedom to express normal behavior Freedom from fear and distress Freedom to be free Freedom to be free
The Moral Question The Mental Ladder- ”We human beings do have a ladder representing our judgment as to “likeability”- those at the top are genetically like us and those we have domesticated to behave in ways we prefer.”
The Dismissal Position Descartes- animals are “mere” machines and do not feel.
Animal Welfare Position Enormous benefits to humans and necessary to medical progress. Enormous benefits to humans and necessary to medical progress. Humans dominant/superior. Humans dominant/superior. Animals do not suffer. Animals do not suffer.
Utilitarian Position Ability to suffer is key. Value increases with richness of life-ways can suffer and receive pleasure. Raymond Frey- Quality of life of some humans lower than that of some animals.
Utilitarianism Utilitarianism “The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?” Jeremy Bentham An Introduction to the Principles of Morals & Legislation, 1789
The Kantian Position Rational criteria- intelligence, consciousness, intentions. The way we treat animals is relevant to the way we treat humans.
Inherent Value & Rights Value not tied to mental states or talents of others or use or how viewed by others. “Rights”= “moral trump cards”- trump “collective interest.”
Nussbaum- Capabilities The opportunity to unfold their powers and to flourish in their own way and to lead a life with dignity.