Timeline: What’s Going On? World: 1869 – Suez Canal is opened. 1900 – Boxer Rebellion takes place in China. United States: 1881 – James Garfield is assassinated – Chester Arthur becomes President. 1890 – Sioux are massacred at Wounded Knee.
Section 1: Objectives By the end of this lesson I will be able to: 1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west. 2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences. 3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers. 4. Trace the development of the cattle industry. 5. Describe both the myth and reality of the American cowboy and explain the end of the open range.
Section 1: Cultures Clash On The Prairie Main Idea: The cattle industry boomed in the late 1800’s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declined. Why it Matters Now: Today, ranchers and Plains Indians work to preserve their cultural traditions. Key Terms: Great Plains Treaty of Fort Laramie Assimilation Dawes Act Battle of Wounded Knee Key Terms / Names: Sitting Bull George A. Custer Longhorn Chisholm Trail Long Drive
SECTION 1: CULTURES CLASH ON THE PRAIRIE The culture of the Plains Indians rarely had come in contact with European- Americans. The Osage and the Iowa had hunted and planted in the Great plains for over 100 years Great Plains – the grassland extending through the west- central portion of the US. THE PLAINS
THE HORSE AND THE BUFFALO Spain introduced the Buffalo in 1598 thus allowing faster and longer hunting trips While the horse provided speed and mobility, it was the buffalo that provided for basic needs. The Sioux and Cheyenne tribes hunted buffalo BUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER AND CLOTHING
FAMILY LIFE ON THE PLAINS Small extended families were the norm Men were hunters, while women helped butcher the game and prepare it This is called a hunter- gatherer community. Tribes were very spiritual and land was communal
Why was the buffalo more important to the Indians than the horse? 1. They were more plentiful 2. They were faster 3. They could be used for many purposes 4. They weren’t more important
SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD The white settlers who pushed westward had a different idea about land ownership Concluding that the plains were “unsettled, “ thousands advanced to claim land Gold being discovered in Colorado only intensified the rush for land A COVERED WAGON HEADS WEST
THE GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES As more and more settlers headed west, the U.S. government increasingly protected their interests Railroad Companies also influenced government decisions RAILROADS GREATLY IMPACTED NATIVE LIFE
Why did the settlers continue to pursue land in the West? 1. The government supported them 2. The railroads supported them 3. They found gold 4. All of the above
NATIVES AND SETTLERS CLASH 1834 – Government set aside all of the Great Plains as “Indian lands” 1850s- Government shifts policy, giving natives much smaller lands The Indians continued to hunt on “their” land Many deaths ensued 1864 - Massacre at Sand Creek; US Army attack killing 150 native women and children “I want no peace till the Indians suffer more.” – US Army Commander S.R. Curtis
Death On The Bozeman Trail: Bozeman Trail – ran directly through Sioux hunting grounds. Whites and Indians fought over this land. The Treaty of Laramie closed the trail and moved the Indians to a reservation. This provided a temporary halt to warfare Sitting Bull - the leader of the Sioux, didn’t sign the treaty.
What was the best reason why the Indians didn’t want to give up their land? 1. Money 2. Hunting 3. Room for more homes 4. None of the above
OTHER CONFLICTS AND BATTLES Conflicts continued including; Fetterman Massacre and Red River War Custer’s Last Stand occurred in early 1876 when Colonel George A. Custer reached Little Big Horn Led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, the natives outflanked and crushed Custer’s troops ONE OF THE FEW NATIVE VICTORIES WAS LITTLE BIG HORN
How did you like using the clickers? 1. It was great 2. I liked it 3. It was ok 4. I didn’t like it
The Battle of Little Big Horn The Battle of Little Big Horn
What was the main reason why Custer was beat by Sitting Bull? 1. The Indians had superior weaponry 2. Custer’s troops didn’t want to fight 3. The Indians had a tactical advantage 4. Custer ran out of ammunition
THE DAWES ACT - 1887 The Dawes Act of 1887 attempted to assimilate natives Assimilation – A plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become a part of the white culture. The Dawes Act called for the break up of reservations and the introduction of natives into American life By 1932, 2/3rds of the land committed to Natives had been taken FAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE
What was the point of the Dawes Act? 1. To get the Indians to act more like the settlers 2. To allow the Indians to live in peace 3. To force the Indians to work for the settlers 4. To give the Indians money for their troubles
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO The most significant blow to tribal life on the plains was the destruction of the buffalo Tourist and fur traders shot buffalo for sport 1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains 1890: less than 1000 remained
The settlers killing the buffalo was: 1. An insult to the Indians 2. Harmful to the Indians food supply 3. A way to control the Indians 4. All of the above
BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE On December 29, 1890, the Seventh Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, S.D. A shot was fired – within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed Natives This event brought the “Indian Wars”– and an entire era to a bitter end HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND
CATTLE BECOMES BIG BUSINESS Ranching became increasingly profitable Texas rangers learned how to handle the Texas Longhorns – sturdy horses accustomed to the dry grasslands - from Mexican rangers Lots of vocabulary came from the Mexican Vaqueros
GROWING DEMAND FOR BEEF After the Civil War the demand for beef surged Urbanization (more people) and the rise of the railroad was instrumental in the increase of beef consumption Chicago Union Stock Yards was a famous market after 1865 POSTCARD OF CHICAGO UNION STOCK YARDS
COW TOWN & THE TRAIL Abilene, Kansas became famous for being a place where the Chisholm Trail – Major cattle route -met the railroads Tens of thousands of cattle came from Texas through Oklahoma to Abilene via the famous Chisholm trail Once in Abilene the cattle would board rail cars for destinations across the country
What led to the growing demand for beef? 1. The destruction of the Indians 2. The growth of cities 3. The amount of work the ranches were doing 4. None of the above
THE END OF THE OPEN RANGE Almost as soon as ranching became big business, the cattle frontier met its end Overgrazing, bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire were responsible
Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You: 1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west. 2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences. 3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers. 4. Trace the development of the cattle industry. 5. Describe both the myth and reality of the American cowboy and explain the end of the open range.
Section 2: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading. 2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
Section 2: Settling On The Great Plains Main Idea: Settlers on the Great Plains transformed the land despite great hardships. Why it Matters Now: The Great Plains region remains the breadbasket of the United States. Key Terms: Homestead Act Exoduster Soddy Key Terms: Morrill Act Bonanza Farm
SECTION 2: SETTLING ON THE GREAT PLAINS Federal land policy and the completion of the transcontinental railroad led to the rapid settlement of American west 1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free acres to any “head of household”
The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1868. The Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Promontory Point, Utah and laid a Golden Spike
The Homestead Act’s main goal was to: 1. Provide settlers with food to live 2. Provide settlers with enough land to start their lives 3. Provide settlers with nothing. 4. None of the above
EXODUSTERS MOVE WEST African Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas were called Exodusters Many exodusters took advantage of land deals
OKLAHOMA SOONERS In 1889, a major governmental land giveaway in what is now Oklahoma attracted thousands In less than a day, 2 million acres were claimed by settlers Some took possession before the government had officially declared it open – thus Oklahoma became known as the “Sooner State”
What were the African American settlers called? 1. Sooners 2. Exodusters 3. Settlers 4. Natives
SETTLERS ENCOUNTER HARDSHIPS The frontier settlers faced extreme hardships – droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, and bandits Despite hardships, the number of people living west of the Mississippi grew from 1% of the nation’s population in 1850 to almost 30% in 1900 LOCUST SWARM
DUGOUTS & SODDIES Most settlers built their homes from the land itself Pioneers often dug their homes out of the sides of ravines or hills (Dugouts) Those in the flat plains made freestanding homes made of turf (Soddies) DUGOUT SODDY
Which one of these hardships did the settlers NOT face? 1. Droughts 2. Floods 3. Hurricanes 4. Locust swarms
INCREASED TECHNOLOGY HELPS FARMERS 1837 – John Deere invented a steel plow that could slice through heavy soil 1847 – Cyrus McCormick mass-produced a reaping machine Other inventions included a grain drill to plant seed, barbed wire, and corn binder JOHN DEERE’S STEEL PLOW HAD TO BE PULLED BY A HORSE OR MULE
FARMER EDUCATION SUPPORTED The federal government financed agricultural education The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 gave federal land to states to help finance agricultural colleges
Which two inventions helped farmers? 1. Tractor and plow 2. Lawn mower and scythe 3. Steel plow and reaping machine 4. Barbed wire and water purifier
ECONOMIC DISTRESS HITS FARMERS Between 1867 and 1887 the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 68 cents Railroads conspired to keep transport costs artificially high Farmers got caught in a cycle of debt The farmers needed to produce more crops to keep up. A new type of farm emerged called a Bonanza farm. Bonanza Farm – huge single- crop farms of 15,000 – 50,000 acres.
Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You: 1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading. 2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
Section 3: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them. 2. Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party.
Section 3: Farmers And The Populist Movement Main Idea: Farmers united to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement. Why it Matters Now: Many of the Populist reform issues, such as income tax and legally protected rights of workers, are now taken for granted. Key Terms: Grange Farmers’ Alliances Populism Bimetallism Gold Standard Key Names: Oliver Hudson Kelley William McKinley William Jennings Bryan
What issue(s) were the farmers facing during this time period? 1. Tough weather 2. Decrease in crop prices 3. Tough legislation from the Railroads 4. Debt 5. All of the above
SECTION 3: FARMERS AND THE POPULIST MOVEMENT In the late 1800s, many farmers were struggling Crop prices were falling, debt increased Mortgages were being foreclosed by banks
FARMERS ORGANIZE FOR CHANGE 1867 – Oliver Hudson Kelley started the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization for farmers that became known as the Grange By 1870, the Grange spent most of their time fighting the railroads Soon the Grange and other Farmer Alliances – (Those who sympathized with farmers) numbered over 4 million members
Why were the farmers fighting the Railroads? 1. They weren’t traveling to their towns 2. The seats were uncomfortable 3. They were charging high prices to use their services. 4. None of the above
POPULIST PARTY IS BORN Leaders of the farmers organization realized they needed to build a base of political power Populism – the movement of the people – was born in 1892 with the founding of the Populist, or People’s Party THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR
What was the main goal of the populist party? 1. To protect the people (farmers) from unjust business practices 2. To enhance their own political power 3. To try to run the Railroad companies out of business 4. To build cities
POPULIST REFORMS Proposed economic reforms included; increase of money supply, a rise in crop prices, lower taxes, a federal loan program Proposed political reforms included; direct election of senators, single terms for presidents Populists also called for an 8-hour workday and reduced immigration
POPULISTS MAKE GAINS In the 1892 Presidential election, the Populist candidate won almost 10% of the vote In the West, the party elected 5 senators, 3 governors and 1,500 state legislators
Which reform was NOT a part of the populist party’s movement? 1. 8 hour workday 2. Direct election of senators 3. Lower taxes 4. More land 5. Increase of money supply
THE PANIC OF 1893 Nationwide economic problems took center stage in America in 1893 Railroads went bankrupt, the stock market lost value, 15,000 businesses and 500 banks collapsed, 3 million people lost their jobs – putting unemployment at 20% THE STOCK MARKET CRASHED IN 1893
SILVER OR GOLD? The central issue of the 1896 Presidential campaign was which metal would be the basis of the nation’s monetary system Bimetallism (those who favored using both) vs. those that favored the Gold Standards alone Why did it matter? People regarded paper money as worthless unless it could be exchanged for gold or silver.
What was NOT part of the Panic of 1893? 1. Falling stock prices 2. Closing of businesses 3. Job loses 4. Mass rioting 5. Bank collapse
BRYAN AND THE “CROSS OF GOLD” Republicans favored the Gold standard and nominated William McKinley Democrats favored Bimetallism and nominated William Jennings Bryan Despite Bryan’s stirring words, “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold,” McKinley won the 1896 election BRYAN’S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH
THE END OF POPULISM With McKinley’s election victory, Populism collapsed, burying the hopes of the farmer Populism left two important legacies: 1) A message that the downtrodden can organize and be heard and 2) An agenda of reforms, many of which would be enacted in the 20 th century The People’s Party Ended But Left An Important Legacy Leading to Progressivism
Even though populism failed at this time, why was it important? 1. So the people knew the government was more powerful 2. The people realized that they had a voice 3. None of the above
Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You? 1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them. 2. Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party.