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The American Pageant Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution, 1763-1775 Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Pageant Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution, 1763-1775 Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Pageant Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution, Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2 The Deep Roots of Revolution Broad sense - American Revolution began when the first colonists set foot on America War may have lasted for eight years - sense of independence had already begun to develop because London was over 3,000 miles away –Sailing across the Atlantic in a ship often took 6 to 8 weeks –Survivors felt physically and spiritually separated from Europe –Colonists in America, without influence from superiors, felt that they were fundamentally different from England, and more independent –Many began to think of themselves as Americans, and that they were on the cutting edge of the British empire

3 Mercantilism & Colonial Grievances Only Georgia was formally planted by the British government –Rest started by companies, religious groups, land speculators British embraced theory that justified their control of the colonies mercantilism: –Country’s economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury –To amass gold and silver, a country had to export more than it imported (it had to obtain a favorable balance of trade) –Countries with colonies were at an advantage, because the colonies could supply the mother country with raw materials, wealth, supplies, a market for selling manufactured goods –For America, that meant giving Britain all the ships, ships’ stores, sailors, and trade that they needed and wanted –They had to grow tobacco and sugar for England that Brits would otherwise have to buy from other countries

4 Mercantilism & Colonial Grievances England’s policy of mercantilism handcuffed American trade –Navigation Laws - most infamous of the laws first of these enacted, aimed at rival Dutch shippers Navigation Laws restricted commerce from the colonies to England (and back) to only English ships, and none other Laws stated that European goods consigned to America had to land first in England (custom duties were collected) “Enumerated goods,” could only be shipped to England –Settlers restricted in what they could manufacture at home –Americans - no currency, but buying things from Britain Drained gold & silver from America, forcing trade & barter Colonists were forced to print paper money, it depreciated –Colonial laws could be voided by the Privy Council Privilege was used sparingly (469 times out of 8,563 laws) Colonists were infuriated by its use

5 The Merits of Mercantilism Merits of mercantilism: –Navigation Laws were hated, Until 1763, not really enforced much, resulting in widespread smuggling Lack of enforcement is called “salutary neglect” John Hancock amassed a fortune through smuggling –Tobacco planters had a monopoly within the British market –Americans had unusual opportunities for self-government –Americans had the mightiest army in the world in Britain, and didn’t have to pay for it After independence, U.S. had to pay for a tiny army & navy –Americans had it made: even repressive laws weren’t enforced much, and the average American benefited much more than the average Englishman Mistakes that occurred didn’t occur out of malice, until the revolution France & Spain embraced mercantilism, & enforced it heavily

6 The Menace of Mercantilism Menace of mercantilism: –Britain began to enforce mercantilism in 1763, the fuse for the American Revolution was lit –Disadvantages of mercantilism included: Americans couldn’t buy, sell, ship, or manufacture under their most favorable conditions South, which produced crops that weren’t grown in England, was preferred over the North –Virginia, which grew just tobacco, was at the mercy of the British buyers, who often paid very poorly and were responsible for putting many planters into debt Colonists felt that Britain was just milking her colonies for all they were worth Theodore Roosevelt later said, “Revolution broke out because England failed to recognize an emerging nation when it saw one”

7 The Stamp Tax Uproar After Seven Years’ War (French & Indian War) –Britain had huge debt - had no intention of making the Americans pay off all – they did feel that Americans should pay off one-third of the cost, since Redcoats had been used for the protection of the Americans Prime Minister George Grenville - honest and able financier –Ordered that the Navigation Laws be enforced, arousing resentment of settlers –Secured the Sugar Act of increased duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies; after numerous protests from spoiled Americans, the duties were reduced The Quartering Act of 1765 required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops

8 The Stamp Tax Uproar imposed a stamp tax to raise money for new military force –Stamp Act mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax –Stamps - required on bills of sale for about 50 trade items as well as on certain types of commercial and legal documents –Stamp Act & Sugar Act provided for offenders to be tried in the admiralty courts - defenders were guilty until proven innocent –Grenville - taxes were fair Simply asking the colonists to pay their share of the deal

9 The Stamp Tax Uproar Americans - felt unfairly taxed for an unnecessary army and they lashed out violently, especially against the stamp tax –Americans formed the battle cry, “No taxation without representation!” –Americans were angered –Americans denied the right of Parliament to tax Americans No Americans were seated in Parliament Grenville replied - statements were absurd, and pushed the idea of “virtual representation,” in which every Parliament member represented all British subjects (so Americans were represented) Americans rejected “virtual representation” as hogwash

10 Forced Repeal the Stamp Act 1765, representatives from 9 of the 13 colonies met in New York –Stamp Act Congress - largely ignored in Britain Step toward inter-colonial unity Colonists agreed to boycott supplies - making their own and refusing to buy British goods Sons and Daughters of Liberty took the law into their own hands – Tarring & feathering violators who agreed to boycott goods –Stormed the houses of important officials & took their money –Demands appeared in Parliament for repeal of the stamp tax Wanted to know why 7.5 million Brits had to pay heavy taxes to protect the colonies, but 2 million colonials refused to pay only one-third of the cost of their own defense – Parliament repealed the Stamp Act Passed Declaratory Act, proclaiming that Parliament had the right “to bind” the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”

11 The Townshend Tea Tax & the Boston “Massacre” Charles “Champaign Charley” Townshend (a man who could deliver brilliant speeches in Parliament even while drunk) persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts in 1767 –Taxes on lead, paper, paint, and tea - later repealed, except tea 1767, New York’s legislature suspended - failure to comply with the Quartering Act Tea was smuggled & to enforce the law, Brits sent troops to America March 5, 1770, a crowd of about 60 townspeople in Boston were harassing some ten Redcoats –One fellow got hit in the head, another got hit by a club –Without orders - troops opened fire, wounding or killing eleven “innocent” citizens Crispus Attucks, a black former-slave and the “leader” of the mob in the Boston Massacre Attucks became a symbol of freedom (from slave, to freeman, to martyr who stood up to Britain for liberty) –Only two Redcoats were prosecuted

12 The Seditious Committees of Correspondence King George III - 32 years old, a good person, but a poor ruler who surrounded himself with sycophants like Lord North Townshend Taxes didn’t do much - were repealed, except for the tea tax Colonies set up Committees of Correspondence –To spread propaganda and keep the rebellious moods –Network of letter-writers and forerunner of the Continental Congress –First committee was started by Samuel Adams –Were key to keeping the revolution spirit rolling

13 Tea Brewing in Boston powerful British East India Company, overburdened with 17 million pounds of unsold tea, was facing bankruptcy British decided to sell it to the Americans –Were suspicious and felt that it was a shabby attempt to trick the Americans with the bait of cheaper tea and paying tax December 16, 1773, some Whites, led by patriot Samuel Adams, disguised themselves as Indians, opened 342 chests and dumped the tea into the ocean in this “Boston Tea Party” –People in Annapolis did the same and burnt the ships to water level –Reaction was varied, from approval to outrage to disapproval –Edmund Burke declared, “To tax and to please, no more than to love and be wise, is not given to men”

14 Parliament Passes “Intolerable Acts” Parliament passed a series of “Repressive Acts” –Punish the colonies, namely Massachusetts –Called the Intolerable Acts by Americans –Boston Port Act closed the harbor in Boston –Self-government limited – need approval for town hall meeting –Charter to Massachusetts was revoked Quebec Act –Good law in bad company –Guaranteed Catholicism to the French-Canadians, permitted them to retain their old customs, and extended the old boundaries of Quebec all the way to the Ohio River –Americans saw their territory threatened –Aroused anti-Catholics - shocked at the enlargement that would make a Catholic area as large as the original 13 colonies –Americans - banned from this region (Proclamation Line of 1763)

15 Bloodshed First Continental Congress –Philadelphia - September 5th to October 26th, 1774 –Met to discuss problems –Not wanting independence yet, did come up with a list of grievances, which were ignored in Parliament –Only Georgia didn’t have a representative (12/13 there) –Came up with a Declaration of Rights Agreed to meet again in 1775 (the next year) if nothing happened “Shot Heard ‘Round the World” –April 1775, the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to nearby Lexington and Concord to seize supplies and to capture Sam Adams and John Hancock –Minutemen, after having eight of their own killed at Lexington, fought back at Concord, pushing the Redcoats back, shooting them from behind rocks and trees, Indian style

16 Imperial Strength &Weaknesses Britain had the heavy advantage –(1) 7.5 million people to America’s 2 million –(2) superior naval power –(3) great wealth 30,000 Hessians (German mercenaries) hired by George III Professional army of about 50,000 men 50,000 American loyalists and many Native Americans Britain had Ireland (which required troops) France was waiting to stab Britain in the back No William Pitt No desire to kill their American cousins English Whigs supported America - felt if George III won, his rule might become tyrannical Britain’s generals were second-rate, & its men were brutally treated Provisions - scarce, fighting a war 3,000 miles away from home Am. - expansive, no single capital to capture & cripple the country

17 American Pluses and Minuses Advantages –Great leaders like George Washington (giant general), and Ben Franklin (smooth diplomat) –French aid (indirect and secretly) - French provided the Americans with guns, supplies, gunpowder, etc… –Marquis de Lafayette - 19, made a major general in the colonial army & great asset –Colonials - fighting in defensive manner & were self-sustaining –Were better marksmen –Americans enjoyed the moral advantage in fighting for a just cause, and the historical odds weren’t unfavorable either Disadvantages –Terribly lacking in unity –Jealousy was prevalent –Little money - inflation hit families of soldiers hard = people poor –Americans had no navy

18 A Thin Line of Heroes American army - desperately in need of clothing, wool, wagons to ship food, and other supplies Many soldiers had also only received rudimentary training Baron von Steuben, spoke no English, whipped soldiers into shape African Americans fought & died in service –More than 5,000 blacks enlisted in the American armed forces –African-Americans served on the British side –November 1775, Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation declaring freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British Army –1,400 Blacks - evacuated to Nova Scotia, Jamaica, & England People also sold items to the British, because they paid in gold People didn’t care about the revolution - raising a large number of troops was difficult, if not impossible Because a select few threw themselves into the cause, the Americans won

19 A View of the Town of Concord, 1775 In 1775 an unknown artist painted the redcoats entering Concord. The fighting at North Bridge, which occurred just a few hours after this triumphal entry, signaled the start of open warfare between Britain and the colonies. (Courtesy of Concord Museum, Concord, Massachusetts) A View of the Town of Concord, 1775 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

20 Lafayette at Yorktown by Jean- Baptiste Le Paon, 1783 The brilliant young French general appears here with his African-American aide, a Virginia slave named James. Among other services to Lafayette, James spied on Cornwallis before the latter's surrender. (Art Gallery, Williams Center, Lafayette College ) Lafayette at Yorktown by Jean-Baptiste Le Paon, 1783 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

21 Mr. Rivington, pro-British editor, hanged in effigy The Sons of Liberty, an organization that united elite and working class protesters, first appeared in Boston but spread quickly to other American cities. In 1775 a pro-British editor in New York, James Rivington, used this illustration while reporting that a New Brunswick mob had hanged him in effigy. The New York Sons promptly made good on the threat to Rivington, attacking his office, destroying his press, and forcing his paper to close. (Mr. Rivington: Library of Congress) Mr. Rivington, pro-British editor, hanged in effigy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

22 Pulling Down the Statue of George III by William Walcutt A statue of George III, standing in the Bowling Green in New York City, was one of the first casualties of the American Revolution; colonists marked the adoption of the Declaration of Independence by pulling it down. Much of the metal was melted to make bullets, but in the twentieth century the head--largely intact--was unearthed in Connecticut. (Lafayette College Art Collection, Easton, Pennsylvania) Pulling Down the Statue of George III by William Walcutt Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

23 Stamp Act protest A Boston crowd burns bundles of the special watermarked paper intended for use as stamps. (Library of Congress) Stamp Act protest Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

24 The Alternative of Williamsburg by Philip Dawe, 1775 In this cartoon, drawn by Philip Dawe in 1775, armed patriots in Williamsburg, Virginia, obtain a merchant's written agreement not to import British goods. The "alternative" is the containers of tar and feathers hanging in the background. (Library of Congress ) The Alternative of Williamsburg by Philip Dawe, 1775 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

25 The Edenton Ladies' Tea Party In October 1774, fifty-one women gathered at Edenton, North Carolina, and declared it their "duty" to support the boycotting of all British imports. Nevertheless, the British man who drew this cartoon chose to satirize the event as an unruly "tea party." (Library of Congress) The Edenton Ladies' Tea Party Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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