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Chapter 23 Lecture One of Two Legends of Aeneas ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Legends of Aeneas Greek myths developed later by the Romans They bring to them their own cultural heritage Romans had no creation account or divine myths Mostly Roman legend for national and social functions ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
EARLY ROME: MYTH, LEGEND, HISTORY ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Early Rome Rome was one of many small towns Earliest influences were Greek and Near Eastern by way of the Etruscans Rome first ruled by Etruscan kings ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Early Rome Replaced in 500 by the “republic” – Patricians (senate) – Consuls (two-year terms of office) – Symbolism of the fasces Plebeians not in the government at first – Gradually acquire a role Legendary traditions justify the rule of the patricians ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Early Rome Rome expanded greatly under its republic New duties of running an empire brought down the Republic and ended in the Roman Empire, with an emperor ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
ROMAN RELIGION ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Roman Religion Latini arrive in 1500 BC Had different practices and attitudes from the Greeks whom we’ve studied ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
ROMAN RELIGION Numina and Sacrificium ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Numina and Sacrificium Religion of the Latini had deities that weren’t anthropomorphic Theirs were the “nodders,” who inhabited certain functions of daily life Robigus/o – Fungus on grain ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Fig. 23.1 A River numen ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Musei Capitolini, Rome; author’s photo
Numina and Sacrificium The Robigalia – Priest of the Quirinus (co + viri) – wine, incense, gut of a sheep, entrails of a dirty, red dog... Sacrificium – do ut des – Carefully scripted rituals that had to be observed – Appius Claudius Pulcher’s chickens ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Numina and Sacrificium Potentially innumerable – First-Plower, Second-Plower, Maker-of-Ridges- between-Furrows, Implanter... Some central to the state as a whole – Janus Some numina become identified with Greek deities and assume their myths ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Fig. 23.2 Two-faced Janus ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Photograph © 2007 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
ROMAN RELIGION Roman Deities Equated with Greek ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Roman/Greek Deities Equated Identification mostly poetic innovation Made by poets Pushed during the reign of the emperors for political reasons ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Fig. 23.3 Hellenized Roman Gods ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. University of Wisconsin–Madison Photo Archive
Roman/Greek Deities Equated RO/GKOriginal Roman Function Jupiter/ZeusSunny Sky/Rain Juno/HeraFamily/Moon Diana/ArtemisSpirit of the woods Ceres/DemeterWheat Mercury/HermesNot an original Roman numen Neptune/PoseidonWaters ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Roman/Greek Deities Equated RO/GKOriginal Roman Function Vulcan/HephaestusVolcanoes; destructive fires Mars/AresWolf; month of the beginning of the campaign season Minerva/AthenaHandicrafts Liber/Dionysus“Freer”?; wine Faunus/PanRelease from forest terror Venus/AphroditeFresh water; vegetable fertility ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Roman/Greek Deities Equated RO/GKOriginal Roman Function HerculesHeracles: Brought in as a foreign cult; no original Roman numen AsculepiusAsklepius: no original Roman numen ProserpinaPersephonê: no original Roman numen DisHades: no original Roman numen ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Fig. 23.4 Temple of Portunus, numen of the Tiber Rriver crossing ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Photo Canali Photobank, Milan
OBSERVATIONS Gods and Men in the Roman Meat Market ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
The Roman Meat Market Shows mixture of sources The Forum Boarium – Hercules passed through Rome with the cattle of Geryon and freed Rome from the cattle-rustler Cacus – Numerous honorific statues and buildings erected to him there ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
ROMAN RELIGION Gods of the Family and State ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Gods of the Family and State Gods of the family weren’t absorbed by Greek deities – No Greek equivalent for them Lar (plural Lares) – Etruscan for a ghost – Of the fertile field first => of many places – Worshipped in shrines at crossroads – Family members in the shrines ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Fig. 23.5 Roman Lares ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. House of the Vettii, Pompeii; author’s photo
Fig. 23.6 Temple of Vesta ©2012 Pearson Education Inc. Photo John Heseltine; © Dorling Kindersley
Gods of the Family and State Penates – Protected a household’s things – Portable The gens – Paterfamilias – A man’s genius All of Rome a family – Vesta (Hestia) – Pietas ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Gods of the Family and State “No doubt it was the native Roman predisposition to regard abstractions as divine that enabled them to transfer pious devotion from the head of a family to an invisible entity of great power, the Roman state. Greek religious anthropomorphism, by contrast, stood in the way of granting obedience to a divine abstraction, and the Greeks never did evolve a nation state.” ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
End ©2012 Pearson Education Inc.
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