3 I. France Finds a Foothold in Canada Latecomer to colonizing New WorldLouis XIV took interest in colonial expansionFirst successful colony Quebec 1609Samuel de Champlain explore, solider, leader early French colonial effortsColony known as New FranceProblems with Iroquois hampered French conquest of Ohio River ValleyFrench colonies autocratic, no representative assemblies, no right to fair trailFavored Caribbean colonies because of sugar trade
4 II. New France Fans OutMost valuable resource in New France- beaver furFur trappers (voyageurs) trapped beaver, recruited Indians into fur businessTraveled deep into wilderness, created ecological disaster by eliminating most of beaver populationFrench Missionaries attempted to “Christianize” IndiansVoyageurs, missionaries vital role as explorers, geographers
5 II. New France Fans OutFrench try to block British and Spanish expansionDetroit (1701), keep out BritishLaSalle claims Mississippi River Valley for France (Louisiana)French fortify posts along river to keep out Spanish, protect beaver tradeEstablish New Orleans (1718) to keep fur and grain flowing to mother country, keep MS River from Spanish
6 French, Spanish and English Settlers Each country had different motives and settlement patternsFrench- friendly relations with Indians (comparatively), tried to convert Natives to Christianity, came in small numbers, extractive economic activity (fur trade), explored deep into continent, Catholic, had economic motivesSpanish- came to conquer (conquistador), looked for and found precious minerals, tried to convert Indians, blended their culture with Native culture, explored deep into continent to look for wealth, CatholicEnglish- came in larger groups (especially NE), settled and “improved” land, more religiously tolerant, wiped out Indian culture, established their own “footprint”, did not explore deep into continent, mostly Protestant
7 III. Clash of EmpiresFour wars in the 17th and 18th century for control of AmericasKing Williams War , Queen Anne’s WarDid not involve large numbers of troops, America not seen as worthy of commitment from European powersUsually involved French and Indian allies attacking English colonial settlementsDeerfield, MA; Schenectady, NY scenes of most violence
8 III. Clash of Empires Treaty of Utrecht 1713 British defeat French England controlled most of Canada except land along St. Lawrence RiverEnd of war begins period of “salutary neglect”War of Jenkins Ear 1739 between British and Spanish, mostly in Caribbean, some fighting in GAKing Georges War Colonists and British capture fort at entrance to St. Lawrence RiverPeace treaty 1748 gives it back to France, enrages colonistsAs a result of wars British military more involved in colonies
9 IV. George Washington Inaugurates War with France Ohio River Valley becomes source of problems between British, FrenchKey to continent for French, linked colonial holdingsRegion key to economic security for FrenchLand hungry British colonists attempt to secure “rights” to regionFrench building forts to secure region
10 IV. George Washington Inaugurates War with France 1754 Governor of VA sends group of militia to secure claims, led by George WashingtonEncounter small group of French soldiers near Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh)French initially defeated, return with reinforcementsWashington forced to surrender1755 British authorities uproot 4,000 French from Nova Scotia, deportees end up in LA (Cajuns)Beginning of French and Indian War
11 V. Global War and Colonial Disunity War began in America, others began in EuropeEngland and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, and RussiaBloodiest battles in Germany“America conquered in Germany” British statesman William PittFrench and Indian War beginning of colonial unityBefore certain colonies had enjoyed advantage of remoteness, now needed to come together to fight French
12 V. Global War and Colonial Disunity 1754 Colonists meet Albany, NYPlan to keep Indians in check, achieve colonial unity, common defense against French7 of 13 colonies show upBen Franklin “Join or Die” slogan, presents Albany Plan for colonial home rule (rejected by British), colonists could not agree on detailsFirst sign of colonial unity
13 VI. Braddock’s Blundering and Its Aftermath Indians allied with French, worried about British settlementFirst part of war went badly for BritishSlow moving, heavy artilleryPoorly supplied, poorly disciplined colonial militiaSmaller French force defeated them at Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburg)Opened up frontier from NC to PA to Indian attackLosses began to pile up for British
14 VII. Pitt’s Palms of Victory 1757- William Pitt becomes leader of London gov’tStopped concentrating on West Indies, focused on CanadaUnderstood colonial concernsOffered colonists a compromise:col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs.Remove oppressive gov’t. officialsResult was improved colonial morale by 17581758 Louisbourg defeated32 year old James Wolfe commanded troops that attacked and defeated Quebec (1759)1760 Montreal falls, last French stronghold1763 Treaty of Paris French give up all claims in NASpain received all land west of MS River and New OrleansBritish emerged as dominant regional power, worlds most powerful navy
15 VIII. Restless Colonials Effects of the war on the coloniesColonists came out of war confident, shattered myth of British invincibilityBarriers of disunity began to dissolveColonists found unity in language, tradition, idealsFriction between colonials and British officersColonials felt they deserved credit for war effortBritish said they did not support causeSmuggling by colonists helped FR and SPBritish position – colonists demand rights, without paying dues, war increased British debt
16 IX. War’s Fateful Aftermath With Fr gone colonists could roam freely across Appalachian Mts.Spanish, Indian threat reducedIndians could not play Br and Fr against each other1763 Ottawa chief Pontiac led attacks on settlersBritish retaliated (gave Indians smallpox infected blankets)British saw need to stabilize frontier now that it was open to settlement
17 IX. War’s Fateful Aftermath Proclamation of 1763Prohibited settlement west of Appalachian Mts.Designed not to oppress colonists but to solve Indian problemColonists viewed it as form of oppressionSettlers went west anyway in defiance of royal authority
19 I. Deep Roots of Revolution Victory in Seven Years War costlyAfter 1763 British wanted colonists to take on financial burdenChange in policy reinforced sense of American identityAmerican experience caused colonists to question ways of the Old World, colonists felt fundamentally different from BritishAmericans had grown accustomed to running own affairs, shock when British try to crack downTwo ideas emerged during colonial experience- republicanism, ideas of Whigs
20 I. Deep Roots of Revolution RepublicanismSociety where citizens subordinate selfish interests to common goodStability of government depended on authority of “good” governmentOpposed to authoritarian institutions (monarchy, aristocracy)Whig Political ThoughtThreat to liberty by monarchWarned citizens to be on guard against corruptionPeople should be represented by elected officials
21 II. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances British authorities embraced policy of mercantilism (countries wealth measured by gold and silver, needed to export more than import)Colonists felt if handcuffed American tradeColonies provided raw materials, acted a market for finished productsEnumerated goods, certain products could only be shipped to EnglandTo the British the Americans were tenants, not built for economic self sufficiency or self government
22 II. Merits and Menace of Mercantilism Merits of MercantilismBritish tried to regulate colonial trade (Navigation Acts 1650)Before 1763 Navigation Laws not a burden, lack of enforcement called “salutary neglect”Tobacco planters had a monopoly in BritainAmericans had some form self-government.British mightiest army in the world, colonists didn’t have to pay for it.Repressive laws weren’t enforced much, average American benefited much more than the average Englishman.Mistakes that occurred didn’t occur out of malice, at least until revolution.France and Spain embraced mercantilism, enforced it heavily.
23 II. Merits and Menace of Mercantilism After enforcement of mercantilist policies fuse of revolution was litStifled economic initiativeDependent on British agents and creditorsState of perpetual economic adolescenceThe South, which produced crops that weren’t grown in England, was preferred over the NorthColonists felt British were taking advantage of them
24 III. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances Currency shortage in coloniesRegularly bought more than they sold to Britain, trade with West Indies drained cashColonies needed hard currencyParliament prohibited colonies to print money, they did anywayColonists saw interests being sacrificed for British commercial interestsBritish also could nullify any colonial legislation (did not happen often)Principle weighed more heavily than practice
25 IV. The Stamp Tax UproarHalf of British debt came from Seven Years War, wanted colonists to pay for own defenseBritain began to redefine relationship with colonies1763- Prime Minister George Greenville began to enforce Navigation Acts1764- Parliament passed Sugar Act- duty on imported sugar1765- Quartering Act, required certain colonies to provide food and lodging troops
26 IV. The Stamp Tax Uproar 1765 worst of all the Stamp Act Mandated the use of stamps, certifying payment of tax.Required on bills of sale for about 50 trade items and on certain types of commercial and legal documents.Both the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act offenders tried in the admiralty courts, where defenders were guilty until proven innocentGreenville felt taxes were justified, British paid much heavier tax
27 IV. The Stamp Tax Uproar Colonists angry at fiscal aggression Colonial assemblies refused to provide supplies for troopsFelt they were unfairly taxed for unnecessary army, lashed out against the stamp tax.Americans formed the battle cry, “No taxation without representation!”Angered, to the principle of the matter at hand.Americans denied the right of Parliament to tax Americans, since none were in Parliament.Idea of “virtual representation,” every Parliament member represented all British subjects (so Americans were represented).Americans rejected “virtual representation”, began to consider political independence
28 V. Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act 1765- Stamp Act Congress drew up statement of rights and grievances, asked king and Parliament to repeal taxCongress made colonies feel unified against common causeColonists began to boycott imported British goods, more effective than congressOrdinary people began to participate in colonial protests, opportunity for women “spinning bees”
29 V. Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act Sons and Daughters of Liberty took the law into their own handsPunished people who purchased goods, stormed the houses of important officialsMachinery to collect tax broke down, no officials to collect taxesHit England hard (25% of exports purchased by colonies)Parliament confused, Britons had to pay much heavier taxes1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, passed the Declaratory Act, defined British had unqualified sovereignty over the colonies
30 VII. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre Americans in rebellious mood after victory over Stamp Act1767 Charles “Champagne Charley” Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend ActsRevenue to pay salaries of royal officials in AmericaTaxes on lead, paper, paint, and tea, later repealed, except tea.1767- New York’s legislature suspended for failure to comply with the Quartering Act.Tea became smuggled, to enforce the law, Brits had to send troops to America
31 VII. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre March 5, 1770, a crowd of about 60 townspeople in Boston were harassing some ten Redcoats.One fellow got hit in the head, another got hit by a club.Without orders but heavily provoked, the troops opened fire, wounding or killing eleven “innocent” citizens, including Crispus Attucks, a black former-slave and the “leader” of the mob in the Boston Massacre. Attucks became a symbol of freedom (from slave, to freeman, to martyr who stood up to Britain for liberty).Only two Redcoats were prosecuted, represented by John Adams
32 VIII. The Seditious Committees of Correspondence 1770- King George III good person, but a poor ruler who surrounded himself with “yes men”, like Lord North.Townshend Taxes repealed, except for the tea tax, kept alive idea of parliamentary taxation1772- Resistance kept alive through Committees of Correspondence, organized by Samuel Adams1773- Intercolonial committees established, exchanged letters, exchanged ideas and information, kept alive opposition across all colonies
33 IX. Tea Brewing in Boston 1773- British East India Company, overburdened with unsold tea, was facing bankruptcy.The British decided to sell it to the Americans,Seen as an attempt to trick the Americans with the bait of cheaper tea to pay tax.December 16, 1773, some Whites, led by patriot Samuel Adams, disguised themselves as Indians, opened 342 chests and dumped the tea into the ocean in this “Boston Tea Party.”People in Annapolis did the same and burnt the ships to water level.Reaction was varied, from approval to outrage to disapproval.British felt they had no alternative but to whip colonists into shape
34 X. Parliament Passes the Intolerable Acts 1774- Parliament passed a series of repressive acts to punish the colonies, namely Massachusetts.Called the Intolerable Acts by Americans.The Boston Port Act closed the harbor in Boston.Self-government limited by forbidding town hall meetings without approval.The charter to Massachusetts was revokedThe Quebec ActIntended by British to administer conquered territoryGuaranteed Catholicism to the French-Canadians, retain their old customs, extended the old boundaries of Quebec all the way to the Ohio River (areas off limits by Proclamation of 1763)Americans saw their territory threatened, aroused anti-Catholics, lack of representative assemblies or trial by jury seen as a dangerous precedent, land speculators see huge area taken away
35 XI. BloodshedPhiladelphia First Continental Congress met to discuss problems.Not wanting independence yet, came up with a list of grievances, ignored in Parliament.12 of 13 colonies met, only Georgia didn’t have a representative there.Came up with a Declaration of Rights.Meet again in 1775 (the next year) if nothing happened.The “Shot Heard ‘Round the World”April 1775, the British commander in Boston sent troops to nearby Lexington and Concord, seize supplies, capture Sam Adams and John Hancock.Minutemen, after having eight of their own killed at Lexington, fought back at Concord, British retreat to Boston
36 XII. Imperial Strength and Weakness Britain had the heavy advantage:7.5 million people to America’s 2 millionsuperior naval powergreat wealth, could hire mercenaries (German Hessians)Little popular support in BritainWhigs wanted American victory, feared George III arbitrary ruleGenerals poor, soldiers well trainedProvisions scarceFighting far from homeAmerican geography, lack of population centers gave Americans time, British fits
37 XII. American Pluses and Minuses AdvantagesGreat leaders -George Washington (giant general), and Ben Franklin (smooth diplomat).French aid (indirect and secretly), provided the Americans with guns, supplies, gunpowder, etc…Marquis de Lafayette a great asset.Fighting in a defensive manner, and they were self-sustaining.They were better marksmen. A competent American rifleman could hit a man’s head at 200 yards.Americans enjoyed the moral advantage in fighting for a just cause
38 XII. American Pluses and Minuses DisadvantagesLacking in unity, though:Colonies resented the Continental Congress’ attempt at exercising powerSectional jealousy over the appointment of military leadersAmericans had little money. Inflation also hit families of soldiers hard, and made many people poor.Colonial money worthless, inflation of prices for basic goodsAmericans had nothing of a navy.
39 XIII. A Thin Line of Heroes American army was desperately in need of clothing, wool, wagons to ship food, and other supplies.Many soldiers had also only received rudimentary training.German Baron von Steuben, who spoke no English, whipped the soldiers into shapeAfrican Americans fought in the beginning, many colonies barred them from service.By war’s end, more than 5,000 blacks had enlisted in the American armed forces.African-Americans served on the British side.1775, Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation declaring freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British Army.End of war more than 1,400 Blacks were evacuated to Nova Scotia, Jamaica, and England.Many people also sold items to the British, because they paid in gold.Many people just didn’t care about the revolution, raising a large number of troops was difficultSelect few threw themselves into the cause with passion
41 I. Congress Drafts George Washington May 1775 all colonies meet 2nd Continental CongressNo well defined sentiment for independenceAdopted measures to raise money for army and navy, sent list of grievances to George IIIMost important action was selecting George Washington as military commander (moral force, great military mind)Selection largely political , from VA, most revolutionaries from New England area
42 Military Strategies Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. The AmericansAttrition [the Brits had a long supply line].Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies.The BritishBreak the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So.Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.“Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
43 II. Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings, Abortive Conquest of Canada Americans fighting war, but not declaring independence for 15 month period ( April July 1776)1775 Americans capture Ft. Ticonderoga, get gunpowder and cannonsJune 1775 Bunker Hill American hold off British attack until gunpowder runs outAugust 1775 King George formally proclaims colonies were in rebellion, begins to hire German (Hessian) troops, Americans were guilty of treasonFall 1775 British capture Falmouth, Maine, Americans plan attack on Canada, they are not successful
44 III. Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense 1776- Thomas Paine published the pamphlet Common Sense, urged colonials to stop war of inconsistency, stop pretending loyalty, and just fight.Nowhere in the universe did a smaller body control a larger one, it was unnatural for tiny Britain to control gigantic America.He called King George III “the Royal Brute of Great Britain.”
45 V. Paine and the Idea of Republicanism Idea that there should be a “republic” where representative senators, governors, and judges should have their power from the consent of the people (POWER FLOWS FROM PEOPLE TO THE GOV’T)Ideas with Biblical imagery, familiar to common folk.Rejecting monarchy and empire and embrace an independent republic fell on receptive ears in America, ideas already existed.The New Englanders already practiced this type of government in their town meetings.Some patriots, favored a republic ruled by a “natural aristocracy” (John Adams), thought too much liberty would destroy social order (runaway republicanism)
46 VI. Jefferson’s “Explanation” of Independence 2nd Continental Congress gradually moved toward a clean break with Britain.June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee urged for complete independence, adopted on July 2, 1776.Congress appointed Thomas Jefferson to write Declaration of Independence.Contained a list of grievances against King George III explaining why the colonies had the right to revolt.His “explanation” of independence also upheld the “natural rights” of humankind (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness).Congress approved it on July 2nd, but because of editing and final approval, it was not completely approved until July 4th, 1776.
47 VII. Patriots and Loyalists War within a war, not all colonials were united.Patriots, who supported rebellion and were called “Whigs.”Loyalists, who supported the king and who often went to battle against fellow Americans, also called “Tories.”Moderates in the middle and those who didn’t care either way. These people were constantly being asked to join one side or another.British proved that they could only control Tory areas, because when Redcoats packed up and left other areas, the rebels would regain controlPatriots good at political reeducation, agents of revolutionary ideas
48 VII. Patriots and Loyalists Typical Loyalist (Tory)Generally conservatives, educated, older, war divided familiesLoyalists were most numerous where the Anglican Church was strongest (the South).Loyalists were less numerous in New England, where Presbyterianism and Congregationalism flourished.Loyalists were more numerous in the aristocratic areas such as Charleston, SC
49 VII. Patriots and Loyalists Typical PatriotThe Patriots were generally the younger generation, like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry.From places where self-government was strong and mercantilism weakThe Patriot militias constantly harassed small British detachments.Patriots typically didn’t belong to the Anglican Church (Church of England) but were Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, or Methodist.There were also “profiteers” who sold to the highest bidder, selling to the British and ignoring starving, freezing soldiers (i.e. George Washington at Valley Forge).
50 VIII. The Loyalist Exodus After the Declaration of Independence, Loyalists and Patriots sharply dividedPatriots often confiscated Loyalist property to resell it (an easy way to raise money)Loyalists attacked and harassed, no reign of terror like France or Russia50,000 Loyalists served the British in one way or another (fighting, spying, etc…), British did not make enough use of them
56 Britain’s Southern Strategy Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South.Southerners not as vocal in support of Revolution, thought it might inspire slave revoltSouthern resources more valuable/worth preserving.British win small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in Vietnam!]Georgia , Charleston, SC 1780Carolinas, Patriots bitterly fought their Loyalist neighbors.1781, rebel victories King’s Mountain, Cowpens in NCQuaker- reared Gen. Nathanael Greene strategy of delay.Retreating and losing battles but winning campaigns, clear the British out of most of Georgia and South Carolina.
57 IX. REVOLUTION IN DIPLOMACY? France wanted revenge on Britain, secretly supplied the Americans throughout much of the war.Continental Congress sent delegates to France; delegates were guided by a “Model Treaty” sought no political/military connections, only commercial ones.Ben Franklin, American diplomat to France, exemplifed a raw new AmericaAfter Saratoga (1777), the British offered the Americans a measure that gave them home rule—everything they wanted except independence.
58 IX. REVOLUTION IN DIPLOMACY? After Saratoga, France enters war against Britain.If Britain regained control, might then try to capture the French West Indies for compensationDid not want to risk a stronger Britain with its reunited colonies.France, 1778, offered a treaty of alliance, offering America everything that Britain had offered, plus recognition of independence.The Americans accepted agreement with caution, France was pro-Catholic, but since the Americans needed help, they’d take it.Official recognition of American independence by European power
59 X. The Colonial War Becomes a Wider War 1779, Spain and Holland entered war against Britain.1780, Catherine the Great of Russia organized the Armed Neutrality (she later called it the Armed Nullity), lined up all of Europe’s neutrals in passive hostility against England.America, though it kept the war going until 1778, didn’t win until France, Spain, and Holland joined in and Britain couldn’t handle them all.Britain, decided to evacuate Philadelphia, concentrate forces in New York, Washington bottled up British in NY
60 XI. Blow and Counterblow 1780 –French reinforcements arrive in Rhode Island.Feeling unappreciated and lured by British gold, Gen. Benedict Arnold turned traitor by plotting with the British to sell out West Point.When the plot was discovered, he fled with the British.
61 XII. The Land and Sea Frontier 1777 -the “bloody year” on the frontierMost Indians supported Britain, believed they would stop American expansion into the WestMohawk chief Joseph Brant, recently converted to Anglicanism, and his men attacked the backcountry of Pennsylvania, New York defeated 1779.1784, pro-British Iroquois signed the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the first treaty between the U.S. and an Indian nation.Indians ceded most of their land.Pioneers continued to move westGeorge Rogers Clark, captured British fortsAmerican navy never really hurt the British warships, but it did destroy British merchant shipping, carried the war into the waters around the British Isles.Privateers captured ships forced them to sail in convoys.
62 XIII. Yorktown and the Final Curtain inflation continued to soar, government was virtually bankrupt, could not repay debtsIn the Chesapeake Cornwallis was blundering into a trapRetreating to Chesapeake Bay Cornwallis instead was trapped by Washington’s army, Rochambeau’s French army, and the French navyKing George wanted to continue the war, fighting continued for about a year after Yorktown mostly in the southPatriot/ Loyalist fightingWashington had to keep army happy, unified during this time
63 XIV. Peace at Paris Brits were weary of the war, suffered heavily Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay met in Paris for a peace deal.Jay suspected France would try to keep the U.S. cooped up east of the Alleghenies and keep America weak.Jay, thinking that France would betray American ambition to Spain, secretly made separate overtures to London (against instructions from Congress)Came to terms quickly with the British, who were eager to entice one of their enemies from the alliance.The Treaty of Paris of 1783Britain formally recognized U.S. granted generous boundaries, Mississippi River to the west, Great Lakes on the north, Spanish Florida on the South.Yankees retained a share in fisheries off Newfoundland.Americans couldn’t persecute Loyalists, though, and Congress could only recommend legislature that would return or pay for confiscated Loyalist land.Did not keep obligation to Loyalists
64 XV. A New Nation Legitimized Britain ceded so much land because it was trying to entice America from its French alliance.American-friendly Whigs were in control of the ParliamentFrance approved the treaty, though with cautious eyes.America came out the big winner
65 LoyalistsLoyalists were conservative, well-educated, and thought that a complete break with Britain would invite anarchy.They felt that America couldn’t win against the most powerful nation in the world.Many Britons had settled in America after the Seven Years’ War, and they had reason to support their home country.Thousands of African-Americans joined the British ranks for hope of freedom from bondage.Many Black Loyalists won their freedom from Britain.Others suffered betrayal, such as when Cornwallis abandoned over 4,000 former slaves in Virginia and when many Black Loyalists boarded ships expecting to embark for freedom but instead found themselves sold back into slavery.Some Black exiles settled in Britain, but weren’t really easily accepted.Most Loyalists remained in America, where they faced special burdens and struggled to re-establish themselves in a society that viewed them as traitors.