Presentation on theme: "Launching the New Republic,"— Presentation transcript:
1Launching the New Republic, 1788-1800 CHAPTER 7Launching the New Republic,1. Which points in Hamilton’s economic program were most controversial and why?2. What was the impact of the French Revolution on American politics?3. What principal issues divided Federalists and Republicans in the election of 1800?4. On what basis were some Americans denied full equality by 1800?
2Constitutional Government Takes Shape, 1788-1796 Implementing Government1789 – George Washingtonbecomes president; JohnAdams becomes vice presidentAlthough there technically weren’t any political parties yet – many consider them both to be FederalistsWashington was inaugurated in the capital city(from ) of New York
3Constitutional Government Takes Shape, 1788-1796 The Federal Judiciary and the Bill of RightsThe Judiciary Act of 1789 set up the federal court systemIn 1791, the Bill of Rights (First 10 Amendments) were ratified
4Hamilton’s Domestic Policies, 1789-1794 Establishing the Nation’s CreditAlexander Hamilton (Sec. of the Treasury) issued to Congress his Reports on the Public Credit (1790)National Debt = $54 million + $25 million debt owed from the statesHis plan:Pay off the $12 million of foreign debt ASAPKeep the debt owed to Americans (to unite the wealthy to the government)Pay off the interest to this debt with import taxes and an excise tax on whiskey“Fund” this debt through bonds and Western land salesThe poor (in need of money) already cashed in their bonds for less valueThe rich who kept theirs stood to gain – the rich get richerAssume the state debts (mostly already paid only by the South)This benefited the “irresponsibility” of the procrastinating NorthTo make this happen and appease the South, Hamilton agreed to move the nation’s capital to the South (Philadelphia – then later to Washington D.C.)
5Hamilton’s Domestic Policies, 1789-1794 Creating a National BankHamilton wanted to create a National Bank:Depository for federal tax revenueLoan $ to the governmentIssue national currencyRegulate state-chartered banksProvide credit to expand our nation’s economyThomas Jefferson (Sec. of State) and James Madison (Congressman) disapproved…The rich would invest and gain interest – the rich getting richerThe needy poor would take out loans and pay interest – the poor would pay the rich!Jefferson and Madison argued to G. Washington that it was unconstitutional because the Constitution didn’t say that a National Bank could be created = STRICT INTERPRETATIONHamilton argued that it was constitutional because the Constitution said that Congress can enact all measures that are “necessary and proper” = LOOSE INTERPRETATIONWashington agreed with Hamilton, Congress barely passed the measure, and in 1791 Washington signed the bank bill for a 20-year charter
6Hamilton’s Domestic Policies, 1789-1794 Emerging PartisanshipAlthough there were no formal political parties… two distinct parties began to emerge…Federalists: Republicans:Rich PoorNortherners SouthernersEasterners WesternersPro-British Pro-FrenchHamilton, Washington, and Adams Jefferson and Madison1792 – Washington and Adams are reelected as president and vice president
7Hamilton’s Domestic Policies, 1789-1794 The Whiskey RebellionHamilton’s excise tax on whiskey is becoming excessively burdensome on western Pennsylvanian farmers who have to convert their grain to alcohol for more efficient transportation.1794 – Western Pennsylvanians havehad enough and revolt against U.S.Marshalls serving court summons.Washington gathers 13,000 militiamenwho quickly suppress the rebellionThe old ways of rebellion are over andpeople must obey the new Constitution
8The United States in a Wider World, 1789-1796 Spanish Power in Western North AmericaMore of the same for Spain… missions, trading, forts,and wiping out the Native Americans with disease
9The United States in a Wider World, 1789-1796 Challenging American Expansion,The area between the Appalachian Mountains andthe Mississippi River were wanted by the Indians,the Spanish, the Americans, and theBritish (who couldn’t just let it go)To help their claims, America added Vermont(not in the West), Kentucky, and Tennesseeas states
10The United States in a Wider World, 1789-1796 France and Factional Politics, 17931789: The French Revolution broke out…Americans were split on their supportAfter the French declared war on Spain and Britain,the South and West wanted a French victory tohopefully get the Spanish and British to stopinspiring the Indian resistance in the WestThe Northeastern merchantssupported Britain and hermoney (via trade)French ambassador Genet gotsome Americans to fight withthe FrenchIn 1793, Washington issued astatement of U.S. neutrality
11The United States in a Wider World, 1789-1796 Diplomacy and War,The British didn’t like America’s “friendliness” tothe French, so they began seizing our ships,impressing our crewmen, and inciting the OhioValley Indians“Mad Anthony” Wayne won the Battle of FallenTimbers which led to the Treaty of Greenvilleopening up the Ohio Valley for U.S. settlement
12The United States in a Wider World, 1789-1796 Diplomacy and War,Jay’s Treaty (1795): Got the British to abandon their American forts (weren’t they supposed to after the Revolution?)… but, it didn’t mention British impressment of our seamenPinckney’s Treaty (1796): Settled the northern border of Spanish Florida and Spain opened up the MississippiRiver (and New Orleans) to the Americans
13Ideological Confrontation, 1793-1794 Parties and Politics,Ideological Confrontation,The Federalists were suspicious of the people having too much power (democracy) due to events like the French Revolution and the Whiskey RebellionThe Jefferson Republicans trusted the people, but feared having the government run by just a few elite individualsHamiltonWashingtonAdamsJeffersonMadison
14Parties and Politics, 1793-1800 The Republican Party, 1794-1796 Newspapers grew in circulation and printed much political mudslingingWashington decided not to run in 1796 and gave his farewell address…Political parties are bad for the U.S.Stay out of foreign entanglements (European politics)
15Parties and Politics, 1793-1800 The Election of 1796 With a majority in electoralVotes, John Adams (Federalist)becomes our second presidentWith the second-most electoral votes,Thomas Jefferson (Republican)becomes our second vice president
16Parties and Politics, 1793-1800 The French Crisis, 1798-1799 In response to the British-friendly Jay’s Treaty, the French began seizing American ships. This eventually led to what becomes known as the…XYZ AffairThis caused Adams to arm our ships and build up our military as we fought an undeclared Quasi-War against France.
17The Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 Parties and Politics,The Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798The Federalist Congress passed these acts in 1798 for our protection…Mainly they were used to weaken and/or silence the Republican partyThe Sedition Act was to expire in 1801 (in case the Feds lost the 1800 election)Virginia and Kentucky (anonymouslysupported by Madison and Jefferson)wanted nothing to do with these acts!
18The Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 A summary of John Adams’ presidency Parties and Politics,The Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798A summary of John Adams’ presidency
19Parties and Politics, 1793-1800 The Election of 1800 Noteworthy election because…First time political parties have played a major roleFirst time we had a major power shift in the executive branchWe didn’t collapse as a nation into a civil warThere was a tie
20Economic and Social Change Producing for MarketsAfter the Revolutionary War, Americans began to produce goods for sale (market economy) rather than just for themselves (subsistence)Most would work from home instead of “going to work”, sometimes referred to as the putting-out system
21Economic and Social Change White Women in the RepublicAfter the Revolutionary War, the roles for white women didn’t advance too much…Got to pick their husbands or use pregnancy to force the issueGranted more divorcesHad fewer kidsThe concept ofRepublicanMotherhood avowedthat white womenshould beeducated… but onlyto raise theirchildren as virtuouslittle citizens
22Economic and Social Change Land and Culture: Native AmericansNative Americans had it bad…Land was often taken/stolen from themDisease and fighting killed off huge portions of their tribesU.S. government tried to “civilize” themMany became addicted to alcoholTheir culture was slowly being destroyed
23Economic and Social Change African-American StrugglesThe advancements made by blacks after the Declaration of Independence were short-lived as life worsened (politically, economically, and socially) for all blacksWhites were anxious after the successfulHaitian slave revolution and the attemptedrevolution in Richmond, VA (Gabriel’sRebellion) in 1800There were a few “successes” such asBenjamin Banneker and the creation ofThe AME church1793 – Eli Whitney’s cotton gin makesslavery a profitable investment in the South