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Spontaneous Generation vs. Biogenesis Honors Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "Spontaneous Generation vs. Biogenesis Honors Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spontaneous Generation vs. Biogenesis Honors Biology

2 Aristotle ( BC) Proposed the theory of spontaneous generation Proposed the theory of spontaneous generation Also called abiogenesis Also called abiogenesis Idea that living things can arise from nonliving matter Idea that living things can arise from nonliving matter Idea lasted almost 2000 years Idea lasted almost 2000 years

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4 Early Science For centuries, people based their beliefs on their interpretations of what they saw going on in the world around them without testing their ideas For centuries, people based their beliefs on their interpretations of what they saw going on in the world around them without testing their ideas They didn’t use the scientific method to arrive at answers to their questions They didn’t use the scientific method to arrive at answers to their questions Their conclusions were based on untested observations Their conclusions were based on untested observations

5 Example of Observations Observation: Every year in the spring, the Nile River flooded areas of Egypt along the river, leaving behind nutrient- rich mud that enabled the people to grow that year’s crop of food. However, along with the muddy soil, large numbers of frogs appeared that weren’t around in drier times Observation: Every year in the spring, the Nile River flooded areas of Egypt along the river, leaving behind nutrient- rich mud that enabled the people to grow that year’s crop of food. However, along with the muddy soil, large numbers of frogs appeared that weren’t around in drier times

6 Example cont… Conclusion: It was perfectly obvious to people back then that muddy soil gave rise to the frogs

7 John Needham By 1745 an English scientist used microscopic observations to support the theory of abiogenesis. To test the theory he boiled meat broth for several minutes in a loosely sealed flask. ( allow to cool down the flask) Immediately after boiling he saw under the microscope that the broth had no living things. After a few days he examined the flask and found microrganism.

8 John Needham Abiogenesis Microorganisms

9 DisprovingSpontaneousGeneration

10 Francesco Redi (1668) In 1668, Francesco Redi, an Italian physician, did an experiment with flies and wide- mouth jars containing meat In 1668, Francesco Redi, an Italian physician, did an experiment with flies and wide- mouth jars containing meat

11 Redi’s Experiment Redi used open & closed flasks which contained meat. Redi used open & closed flasks which contained meat. His hypothesis was that rotten meat does not turn into flies. His hypothesis was that rotten meat does not turn into flies. He observed these flasks to see in which one(s) maggots would develop. He observed these flasks to see in which one(s) maggots would develop.

12 Redi’s ( ) Experiments Evidence against spontaneous generation: 1. Unsealed – maggots on meat 2. Sealed – no maggots on meat 3. Gauze – few maggots on gauze, none on meat

13 Redi’s Findings He found that if a flask was closed with a lid so adult flies could not get in, no maggots developed on the rotting meat within. He found that if a flask was closed with a lid so adult flies could not get in, no maggots developed on the rotting meat within. In a flask without a lid, maggots soon were seen in the meat because adult flies had laid eggs and more adult flies soon appeared. In a flask without a lid, maggots soon were seen in the meat because adult flies had laid eggs and more adult flies soon appeared.

14 Did Redi Use the Scientific Method? Did Redi Use the Scientific Method?

15 Lazzaro Spallanzani’s (1765) Boiled soups for almost an hour and sealed containers by melting the slender necks closed Boiled soups for almost an hour and sealed containers by melting the slender necks closed. The soups remained clear. The soups remained clear. Later, he broke the seals & the soups became cloudy with microbes. Later, he broke the seals & the soups became cloudy with microbes.

16 Spallanzani’s Results

17 Conclusion Critics said sealed vials did not allow enough air for organisms to survive and that prolonged heating destroyed “vital force” Critics said sealed vials did not allow enough air for organisms to survive and that prolonged heating destroyed “vital force” “Vital force” needed to life to form. “Vital force” needed to life to form. Therefore, spontaneous generation remained the theory of the time Therefore, spontaneous generation remained the theory of the time

18 Needham 1745 Spallanzani 1765

19 Louis Pasteur ( )

20 Pasteur's Experiment Hypothesis: Microbes come from cells of organisms on dust particles in the air; not the air itself. Hypothesis: Microbes come from cells of organisms on dust particles in the air; not the air itself. Pasteur put broth into several special S-shaped flasks Pasteur put broth into several special S-shaped flasks Each flask was boiled and placed at various locations Each flask was boiled and placed at various locations

21 Pasteur's Experiment - Step 1 S-shaped Flask S-shaped Flask Filled with broth Filled with broth The special shaped was The special shaped was intended to trap any dust particles containing intended to trap any dust particles containing bacteria bacteria

22 Pasteur's Experiment - Step 2 Flasks boiled Flasks boiled Microbes Killed Microbes Killed

23 Pasteur's Experiment - Step 3 Flask left at various locations Flask left at various locations Did not turn cloudy Did not turn cloudy Microbes not found Microbes not found Notice the dust that collected in the neck of the flask Notice the dust that collected in the neck of the flask

24 Pasteur's Experimental Results

25 The Theory of Biogenesis 1864 Pasteur’s S-shaped flask kept microbes out but let air in. Pasteur’s S-shaped flask kept microbes out but let air in. Proved microbes only come from other microbes (life from life) - biogenesis Proved microbes only come from other microbes (life from life) - biogenesis

26 Review Mr. Velázquez Biology

27 Evidence Pro and Con 1668: Francisco Redi filled six jars with decaying meat. 1668: Francisco Redi filled six jars with decaying meat. Conditions:Results: 3 jars covered with fine net - No maggots 3 open jars - Maggots appeared From where did the maggots come? What was the purpose of the sealed jars? Spontaneous generation or biogenesis?

28 Evidence Pro and Con 1765: Lazzaro Spallanzani boiled nutrient solutions in flasks. 1765: Lazzaro Spallanzani boiled nutrient solutions in flasks. Conditions:Results: Nutrient broth placed in flask, heated, then sealed No microbial growth Spontaneous generation or biogenesis?

29 Evidence Pro and Con 1861: Louis Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air. 1861: Louis Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air. Conditions:Results: Nutrient broth placed in flask, heated, not sealed Microbial growth Nutrient broth placed in flask, heated, then sealed No microbial growth Spontaneous generation or biogenesis?


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