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U.S. West Coast Native Oyster Restoration (Ostreola conchaphila): 2006 Workshop Summary Summer Morlock, Polly Hicks, Natalie Cosentino-Manning NOAA Restoration.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. West Coast Native Oyster Restoration (Ostreola conchaphila): 2006 Workshop Summary Summer Morlock, Polly Hicks, Natalie Cosentino-Manning NOAA Restoration."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. West Coast Native Oyster Restoration (Ostreola conchaphila): 2006 Workshop Summary Summer Morlock, Polly Hicks, Natalie Cosentino-Manning NOAA Restoration Center Images: Couch and Hassler, 1989

2 NOAA Restoration Center Community-based Restoration Program Fosters community support through hands-on citizen involvement in fishery habitat restoration projects Creates partnerships with local constituencies Leverages technical expertise and funds Instills stewardship and conservation values Over 1450 projects funded since 1996 “Celebrating 10 years of coastal restoration”

3 Restoration gaining popularity with many organizations NOAA RC alone - over $1,000,000 directly and through partnerships (TNC, RAE, Ocean Trust, Fish America,..) with significant leverage Projects demonstrated that substrate enhancement and reseeding efforts can be successful Need to improve science and guidance for implementation and document success West Coast Native Oyster Restoration

4 September 6-8, 2006 Marin Rod and Gun Club San Rafael, CA First West Coast-wide Workshop Purpose: 1) To share knowledge regarding native oyster restoration efforts 2) To bring together the best available science and identify research needs 3) To develop guidelines and methods for future oyster restoration efforts Over 70 participants Over 30 speakers academia agencies industry NGOs

5 Sponsors and Organizers

6 Olympia Oyster Distribution Biology, Genetics, and Dispersal Limitations to Restoration and Recovery Ecological Interactions – Ecosystem Services Restoration: Past, Present and Future Permitting The Community’s Role in Restoration Short-term and Long-term Goals and Priorities Workshop Topics of Focus

7 Dispersal and Genetics Larval dispersal Rapid techniques for larvae identification and quantification - DNA extraction through qPCR (Vadopalas et al.) Larval shell chemistry as “flight recorder” of environmental conditions to track larval movements and identify source populations (Zacherl et al.)  Need to better understand reproductive cycles, larval conditions, larval transport Genetics Microsatellite DNA testing to distinguish populations (Stick et al., Camara)  Little to no genetic information  Unclear when populations are locally adapted versus genetically unhealthy  Maintain or restore genetic diversity vs. improve capacity to respond to future challenges (e.g., habitat degradation, invasives, disease)

8 Ecosystem Services Limited information available in comparison to eastern oyster No positive benefit for overall diversity of community found, but other services still unknown (Kimbro; Tomales Bay) Olympia oysters appear to create habitat, but form beds as opposed to reefs Image credit: D. Kimbro

9 Current and Future Restoration Washington Puget Sound Willapa Bay Oregon Netarts Bay Yaquina Bay Coos Bay California San Francisco Bay Tomales Bay Humboldt Bay Southern California

10 Limitations to Restoration Many limiting factors are site specific, seasonal, and/or poorly understood including: Substrate availability Willapa Bay (Trimble) -Historic removal of dense subtidal shell - Newly introduced shell in intertidal recruitment sink SF Bay (Abbott) Salinity SF Bay (Abbott) Competition Oysters poor space competitors (Trimble) Photo credit: A. Trimble

11 Limitations (con’t) Disease 3 diseases/disease agents (Mikrocytos-like protist (micocell), a haplosporidian, hemic neoplasia) (Friedman et al.; SF Bay) Disseminated neoplasia found in (portions of) Tomales Bay, Drakes Estero and San Francisco Bay (Moore)  Need information before moving shell between sites Predators Non-indigenous Japanese oyster drill ( Ocinebrina inornata) (Buhle and Ruesink; Puget Sound)  Restoration possible where oyster or alternative prey abundance/recruitment saturate feeding Native and non-native whelk ( Acanthina spirata and Urosalpinx cinerea ), native and not-native crabs ( Cancer productus and Carcinus maenas) (Grosholz and Kimbro; Tomales Bay) Also, native crab  whelk  oysters

12 Management Challenges Permitting Funding Multiple agencies involved Seed production Coordination with other species restoration efforts Commercial oyster farms Conservation leasing Humor credit: R. Rogers

13 Restoration/research Recommendations Develop explicit restoration goals and appropriate metrics for assessment of success View restoration as experiments –explore basic biology and limiting factors Genetics/hatchery supplementation –conservative approach because lack genetic information –use local populations while minimizing changes to allele frequency & maximizing genetic diversity –have a large number of parents that are unrelated and restrict the contribution of individual parents Habitat/substrate enhancement that relies on recruitment –identify sites with high recruitment, low predation, etc. –consider using native shell or materials that will biodegrade quickly

14 Recommendations (con’t) Ecological studies on population bottlenecks Monitor current populations Protect productive areas Build constituencies!! –oyster restoration makes a good story –reach out to broad community –create opportunities to engage and educate Photo credit: S. Rumrill

15 Research Needs Historic and current distribution and geographic specifics (e.g., substrate, lower/upper distribution, hydrodynamics) Reproductive cycles, larval transport and environment Differential settlement within and among populations, geography, seasons, and years) –habitat studies (loose shell, old v. new, concrete) Recruitment source versus sink Environmental impacts to oysters Genetics –locally adapted versus genetically unhealthy –past/current versus future environment –further develop genetic analysis tools

16 Research Needs (con’t) Predation – need to understand community ecology Disease and parasites Competition Ecosystem function/services (and economic benefits!) –consider applying east coast models –need standard protocol for sampling Technique development (materials, size, shape, etc.) Peter-Contesse and Peabody, 2006

17 Next Steps Workshop proceedings Journal of Shellfish Research (special edition) Follow-up workshops (WA State) Working groups “State of the Practice” document Develop standardized monitoring protocols and metrics Coast-wide spatfall monitoring Parallel studies in each state/region Standard protocol for use of oyster shell to minimize exotic species intro (SF Bay area)

18 Thank You! Participants Funders

19 Summer Morlock NOAA Restoration Center Community-based Restoration Program x121


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