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Jacques P. Bersier, Coordinator Farah Fawaz Sarah Chapatte
Stakeholder – definition A person with an interest or concern in something, especially a business. [or] denoting a type of organization or system in which all the members or participants are seen as having an interest in its success. Oxford Dictionaries Endogenous stakeholder Exogenous stakeholder © 2013 Réseau plasturgie2
Table of contents Objectives of the module 1Why it is important for your cluster ? 2What is it about? 3Who should manage all this? 4How do I manage these activities? 5For your members only? 6What are the risks? Debate – Your inputs and recommendations © 2013 Réseau plasturgie3
Objectives of the module aHow important are relations inside and outside the cluster bHow to manage networking cWhat are the risks © 2013 Réseau plasturgie4
1Why is it important for you cluster? (1) Foster the development of the cluster because networking is the essence of the cluster Improve the cluster’s framework conditions Add value brought by networking for the members Knowledge about members Marketing Business opportunities Cooperation opportunities …. © 2013 Réseau plasturgie5
Why is it important for you cluster? (2) Strong networking inside a cluster need at least: Some level of trust Some level of common identity Some type of structure facilitating meetings and networking Some level of continuous traffic © 2013 Réseau plasturgie6
Why is it important for you cluster? (3) “The reason clusters are relevant for innovation is that when there is a critical mass in a location of a sector or industry, the different actors can support each other, and resources can be arranged and rearranged in flexible ways. But critical mass is not enough; the actors must be connected in various ways and there must be mobility of resources and skills, including technological spill-overs”. © 2013 Réseau plasturgie7 Source: Dr Christian Ketels, Dr Göran Lindqvist, Dr Örjan Sölvell, Strengthening Clusters and Competitiveness in Europe, The role of Clusters Organisations, The Cluster Observatory, 2012
2What is it about? The cluster allows all the different actors to interact and to learn from each other. As reported by Michael Porter: « Clusters do more than make opportunities for innovation to be more visible. They also provide the capacity and the flexibility to act rapidly » © 2013 Réseau plasturgie8
Endogenous stakeholders (1) Diamond Model INDUSTRY STATE ACADEMIA ENDOGENOUS EXOGENOUS © 2013 Réseau plasturgie9 Firm strategy, Structure, and Revalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor Conditions Demand conditions Chance Government Source: Professor Michael E. Porter
Endogenous stakeholders (2) Triple helix model INDUSTRIY INDUSTRY Buyers and suppliers Related industries, SMEs, Services ACADEMIA University Research center Tech transfer offices, Technology parks STATE National, regional and local authorities Agencies © 2013 Réseau plasturgie10
Endogenous stakeholders (3) Actors on a Cluster Stage INDUSTRIY INDUSTRY Buyers and suppliers Related industries, SMEs, Services RESEARCH COMMUNITY University Research center Tech transfer offices, Technology parks GOVERNMENT Regional authorities Agencies MEDIA Spezialised media INSTITUTIONS FOR COLLABORATION Formal and informal networks Trade associations Cluster organisations FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS Banks Venture Capital Business Angels INDUSTRY MEDIA GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS RESEARCH COMMUNITY Source: Dr Örjan Sölvell, Clusters, Balancing Evolutionary and Constructive Forces, Ivory Tower Building, Stockholm, Sweden, 2008 INDUSTRY MEDIA GOVERNMENT INSTI- TUTIONS COLLABO- RATION FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS RESEARCH COMMUNITY © 2013 Réseau plasturgie11
Endogenous stakeholders (4) Five types of actors in a cluster INDUSTRY Buyers and suppliers Related industries, SMEs, Services RESEARCH ORGANISATIONS University Research institute Tech transfer offices, Technology parks EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS Post-education Centers, Schools Polytechnics Universities CAPITAL PROVIDERS Venture Capital Business Angels Firms Banks PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS Government (national – regional – local) Public agencies Source: Dr Christian Ketels, Dr Göran Lindqvist, Dr Örjan Sölvell, Strengthening Clusters and Competitiveness in Europe, The role of Clusters Organisations, The Cluster Observatory, 2012 © 2013 Réseau plasturgie12 Cluster organisation play the role of bridge builders
Endogenous stakeholders © 2013 Réseau plasturgie13 AcademiaIndustryState INDUSTRY Buyers and suppliers Related industries, SMEs, Services ACADEMIA University Research center Tech transfer offices, Technology parks STATE National, regional and local authorities Agencies
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie14 Six principal targets of a cluster (1) Source: Dr Örjan Sölvell, Dr Göran Lindqvist, Dr Christian Ketels, The Cluster Initiative Greenbook, Ivory Tower AB, Stockholm, 2003 Policy Action Research and Networking Innovation & Technology Education and training Cluster Growth Commercial cooperations Specific post-training programs Knowledge management Technical training Professional training Trade fair participation Equipment sharing Intellectual property Experts network Company networks Cooperation with other clusters Cluster promotion Company growth Welcoming new enterprises Spin-offs/ start up creation Attract firms/ new partners Structures formalization Applied research projects Technology watch Access to research institutions Access to competitive funding Professional training Economic policy Lobbying
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie15 Cluster objectives* (2) *Source: Dr Christian Ketels, Dr Göran Lindqvist, Dr Örjan Sölvell, Strengthening Clusters and Competitiveness in Europe, The role of Clusters Organisations, The Cluster Observatory, 2012
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie16 High-priority shares by CI age group* (3) *Source: Örjan Sölvell, Mats Williams, Building the Cluster Commons, An Evaluation of 12 Cluster Organisations in Sweden, 2005-2012, Ivory Tower Publishers, 2013 (Orange Book)
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie17 High-priority shares by CM size* (4) *Source: Dr Christian Ketels, Dr Göran Lindqvist, Dr Örjan Sölvell, Strengthening Clusters and Competitiveness in Europe, The role of Clusters Organisations, The Cluster Observatory, 2012
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie18 Need to reshape the networking Growing number of (different) actors – endogenous and exogenous Need for internationalization Need for a multidimensional networking and communication
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie19 Important role of stakeholders Academia Science, technology and knowledge transfer Developing cutting edge technologies Earth of innovation State Framework conditions for academia and industry Financing Industry Need to be more competitive
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie20 Networking model CLUSTER MANAGEMENT CM Bilateral relations with endogenous or exogenous stakeholders STAKEHOLDERS Bilateral relations with other stakeholders STAKEHOLDER’S GROUP Bilateral relations inside a same group CM StateMediaIndustry Academia Finance
3Who should manage all this? Cluster management should be in charge all the networking process – bridge builders* Cluster’s steering committee CEO from one of the core companies Majority of the members from companies Board must supply lots of energy to the cluster Cluster manager Networker – Driving force – Communicator - Management Cluster’s collaborators © 2013 Réseau plasturgie21 *Source: Örjan Sölvell, Mats Williams, Building the Cluster Commons, An Evaluation of 12 Cluster Organisations in Sweden, 2005-2012, Ivory Tower Publishers, 2013 (Orange Book)
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie22 GT Innovaton & Technology GT Policy action GT Research and networking GT Education GT Cluster expansion GT Commercial cooperation Who should manage all this? Working groups composed of stakeholder’s representatives and managed by an industrial partner Source: Örjan Sölvell, Mats Williams, Building the Cluster Commons, An Evaluation of 12 Cluster Organisations in Sweden, 2005-2012, Ivory Tower Publishers, 2013 (Orange Book)
4How do I manage these activities? Mission 1 Cluster management with academia © 2013 Réseau plasturgie23 inputs Knowledge of academic partners, competencies, projects, equipments, success stories, expectation toward the cluster... Needs of academic partners toward cluster, state and industry outputs New training programs Postgraduate jobs Ongoing trainees Knowledge Atlas … State Industry Academia
4How do I manage these activities? Mission 1 Cluster management with industry © 2013 Réseau plasturgie24 inputs Knowledge of industrial partners, competencies, products, equipments, success stories, expectation toward the cluster … Needs of industrial partners toward cluster, state and academia outputs Collaborative projects Competitive projects Internationalization … State Industry Academia
4How do I manage these activities? Mission 1 Cluster management with state © 2013 Réseau plasturgie25 inputs Industrial and innovation policy, expectation toward the cluster … Needs of state partners toward cluster, industry and academia outputs Financing of Cluster Initiatives Framework conditions for Academia and Industry This relation can be strongly affected depending on the original trigger of the Cluster Initiative (CI) StateIndustry Academia
4How do I manage these activities? Mission 2 Networking between Academia and Industry © 2013 Réseau plasturgie26 inputs University produce cutting-edge knowledge Academy offer specialized education programs and graduate students with skills outputs Access to a knowledge atlas Formalized partnerships Projects Mandates Skilled peoples Post-education New training programs State IndustryAcademia
4How do I manage these activities? Mission 2 Networking between Industry and State © 2013 Réseau plasturgie27 inputs Laws, rules, informations Industrial needs outputs High level of exchanges Innovation policy Industrial policy Economic Observatory State IndustryAcademia
4How do I manage these activities? Mission 2 Networking between State and Academia © 2013 Réseau plasturgie28 inputs Financing needs Laws, reglements, informations outputs High level of exchanges Use of academic partners on specific project Help for economic promotion State IndustryAcademia
4How do I manage these activities? Mission 3 Networking inside each stakeholder group © 2013 Réseau plasturgie29 Smal firms interact with large firms Domestic firms interact with multinationals *« They use each other as buyers, as suppliers, as technology partners, as places to find trained staff, as sources of new ideas to imitate, or simply as an inspiration to aim higher and set more ambitious goals » *Source: Örjan Sölvell, Mats Williams, Building the Cluster Commons, An Evaluation of 12 Cluster Organisations in Sweden, 2005-2012, Ivory Tower Publishers, 2013 (Orange Book)
From an ideal cluster to a real one CM organisations bridging the seven innovation gap © 2013 Réseau plasturgie30 Source: Örjan Sölvell, Mats Williams, Building the Cluster Commons, An Evaluation of 12 Cluster Organisations in Sweden, 2005-2012, Ivory Tower Publishers, 2013 (Orange Book) Good knowledge Dense networks Common « language » Similar norms and attitudes Shared vision Hightrust Positive incentives Poor knowledge Sparse networks Different « languages » Different norms and attitudes Different visions Lowtrust Negative incentives Weak obstacles → Interaction Strong obstacles → gaps
Evaluation of Cluster Initiatives Measuring effects from organized clusters on the base of six gaps © 2013 Réseau plasturgie31 Source: Örjan Sölvell, Mats Williams, Building the Cluster Commons, An Evaluation of 12 Cluster Organisations in Sweden, 2005-2012, Ivory Tower Publishers, 2013 (Orange Book) Degree of which cluster activities improve collaborations at the level of 1.Firm-to-Firm 2.Firm-to-Research and Firm-to-Education 3.Firm-to-Capital 4.Firm-to-Policy 5.Firm-to-Cluster 6.Firm-to-Global
5For your members only? – No Cluster networking should be widely open to new future partners regarded as exogenous stakeholder Involve new partners Create cluster collaborations Initiate transnational cooperation's Collaborate with media in order to attracts create a brand and attract new members © 2013 Réseau plasturgie32
6What are the risks? Establish a prioritization according to the value added Priorities Choice of partners based on the cluster’s strategy Try to have win-win situations IP protections © 2013 Réseau plasturgie33
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie34 Priorities (1) Cluster Manager’s Contact Patterns Source: Dr Christian Ketels, Dr Göran Lindqvist, Dr Örjan Sölvell, Strengthening Clusters and Competitiveness in Europe, The role of Clusters Organisations, The Cluster Observatory, 2012
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie35 Priorities (2) Cluster Manager’s Contact Patterns Source: Dr Christian Ketels, Dr Göran Lindqvist, Dr Örjan Sölvell, Strengthening Clusters and Competitiveness in Europe, The role of Clusters Organisations, The Cluster Observatory, 2012
© 2013 Réseau plasturgie36 Priorities (3) Correlation between objectives and contacts Source: Dr Christian Ketels, Dr Göran Lindqvist, Dr Örjan Sölvell, Strengthening Clusters and Competitiveness in Europe, The role of Clusters Organisations, The Cluster Observatory, 2012
Your inputs - discussion What has been missing? What’s wrong? What’s pertinent? … © 2013 Réseau plasturgie37 Thank you for your attention and participation
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