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Magdalena Zajac-Fras Cracow University of Economics.

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Presentation on theme: "Magdalena Zajac-Fras Cracow University of Economics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Magdalena Zajac-Fras Cracow University of Economics

2  Gender structure of students  Gender structure at the universities and glass ceiling  Grants and publications among scientist  Family status and university career of academics  Expenditure on science and other problems  Conclusions

3  Persons with higher education: ◦ Decade of eighties: 6,5% ◦ 2004: 10,2% ◦ 2010: 20%  Women are better educated than men  In the period : ◦ the number of female students increased 5 times ◦ the number of male students increased 4 times

4 Ph.D.Habilitated Doctor Professor Per cent of women ,4020,709, ,8021,2021, ,9021,4022, ,6329,0526, ,9432,1226,81 Science and technology in 2003, Warsaw, Central Statistical Office 2004.

5  GCI = P / Pa  P = proportion of women in grade A+B+C  Pa = proportion of women in grade A  Grade A – Full professor  Grade B – Habilitated doctor  Grade C – Doctor  If GCI=1 there is no difference between women and men regarding promotion  The higher the value the thicker the glass ceiling SheFigures 2006, Eurostat, p. 52, 101; Re-claiming a political voice: women and science in Central Europe, Prague 2008, p. 141.

6 SheFigures 2006, Eurostat, p. 59.

7 PositionWomen (%) Director5,8 Dean45,8 Manager19,5 Vice-rector14,4 Rector / Prorector8,6 Re-claiming a political voice: women and science in Central Europe, Prague 2008, p. 142.

8  Lower expenditures on science, lower number of men in academia  Women as „winners among losers”  External brain drain  Internal brain drain Source: R. Siemienska, The puzzle of gender research productivity in Polish Universities, in: Gendered Career Trajectories in Academia in Cross-National Perspective, ed. R. Siemienska, A. Zimmer, SCHOLAR, Warszaw 2008, p

9  Grants: professors > young researchers  Polish grants: men>women  Foreign grants: women=men  Abroad publications: men>women  Polish publications: women>men  Biggest publication productivity: ◦ Women - age ◦ Men – age Source: R. Siemienska, The puzzle of gender research productivity in Polish Universities, in: Gendered Career Trajectories in Academia in Cross-National Perspective, ed. R. Siemienska, A. Zimmer, SCHOLAR, Warszaw 2008, p

10 StatusWomenMen M.A. – Ph. D.7,76,8 Ph. D. - habilitation11,19,7 Habilitation - professorship 11,210,3 Source: A. Majcher, Seeking the guilty – Academics between career and family in Poland and Germany, in: Gendered Career Trajectories in Academia in Cross-National Perspective, ed. R. Siemienska, A. Zimmer, SCHOLAR, Warszaw 2008, p.307.

11 VariablesWomen (%)Men (%) Married64,793,3 Single/never married13,11,9 Parent74,992,3 Mean number of children 1,21,7 Mean age of having the first/only child 34,331,3 Mean age of having the youngest child 31,527,1 Source: A. Majcher, Seeking the guilty – Academics between career and family in Poland and Germany, in: Gendered Career Trajectories in Academia in Cross-National Perspective, ed. R. Siemienska, A. Zimmer, SCHOLAR, Warszaw 2008, p.312.

12 Source: A. Majcher, Seeking the guilty – Academics between career and family in Poland and Germany, in: Gendered Career Trajectories in Academia in Cross-National Perspective, ed. R. Siemienska, A. Zimmer, SCHOLAR, Warszaw 2008, p.317.

13  To adjust career schemes, to take into account different life trajectories of women and their additional responsibilities in the family  To behave as if women did not bear children, assign care responsibilities to the public institutions  To support a new division of labour within families, adjust career schemes to different life trajectories Source: A. Majcher, Seeking the guilty – Academics between career and family in Poland and Germany, in: Gendered Career Trajectories in Academia in Cross-National Perspective, ed. R. Siemienska, A. Zimmer, SCHOLAR, Warszaw 2008, p.324.

14 Country Czech Rep. 1,721,011,161,331,3 Hungary1,050,730,720,80,95 POLAND0,830,690,710,670,68 Slovakia1,80,931,090,650,64 Waste of talents: turning private struggles into a public issue, Women and Science in the Enwise countries,Science and Society, Brussels, p. 60.

15  Glass ceiling  External and internal brain drain  Low expenditure on higher education, low salaries  Double burden – at home and in the workplace  Lack of childcare institutions  Different mandatory retirement ages


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